Oysters

GENERAL INFO

Oysters form large reefs that provide habitat for a wide range of marine plants and animals. They feed by filtering microscopic plants from the water, and in the process improve water quality and clarity. Rebuilding reefs and stocking them with oysters is a high priority for the Bay. It is a long-term process that will require the participation and commitment of federal and state agencies and citizens alike for many years. It is important to restore native oysters to the Chesapeake. [18]
Gills filter plankton from the water, and strong adductor muscles are used to hold the shell closed. Some of the groups known as oysters, also known as mullusks (true oysters), are highly prized as food, both raw and cooked. Some other groups also called oysters, such as pearl oysters, are not widely eaten, at least not since recent times. [4]
Mentions Sandy Ingber, the chef at Grand Central's Oyster Bar. Osinski's oysters are called Widow's Holes, after the pond behind his house. [1]
Today all that has changed and we can enjoy oysters twelve months a year. Oysters are not only delicious, but they're also one of the most nutritionally well balanced of foods, containing protein, carbohydrates and lipids. [2]
Oysters are an excellent source of vitamins A, B1(thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), C (ascorbic acid) and D (calciferol). [2]
True (edible) oysters are incapable of making gem-quality pearls, although the opposite idea is a commonly-encountered misapprehension, often seen in illustrations or photographs where an edible oyster shell is mistakenly paired with a gem-quality pearl. [4]
The local harbor environment. Oysters are flavored by what they feed on. The unique mix of nutrients and local species of phytoplankton that inhabit Wellfleet are different than those even as nearby as Cotuit, Mass., and these variations greatly contribute to the Wellfleets' distinctive flavor. [5]
Oysters are filter feeders. They feed by opening their shells and pumping water through their gills to filter out plankton and other particles. [6]
Oysters are sometimes cited as an aphrodisiac. It is disputed whether this is true. According to the Telegraph of London a team of "American and Italian researchers analysed bivalve molluscs - a group of shellfish that includes oysters - and found they were rich in rare amino acids that trigger increased levels of sex hormones." If there is such an effect, it may be due to the soft, moist texture and appearance of the oyster; it may also be due to their high zinc content. [4]
Rocky Mountain oysters are sometimes confused with lamb fries or animelles (lamb testicles), which are served in a manner similar to Rocky Mountain oysters. Boar (hog) testicles are served in some Midwest areas such as in Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa. [7]
Oysters were part and parcel of life in New York, eaten for breakfast lunch and dinner, pickled, stewed, baked roasted, fried, scalloped and in soups, patties and puddings. In the excerpts of the report in each borough activity, it seems evident that garbage and overfishing were already taking a heavy toll, even when the oyster industry was in its heyday of the late 1800s. A few years after this report, many of the waters were closed after outbreaks of typhoid. [8]
Olympia oysters are native to the Pacific Northwest. Their small size, with meat often only the size of a quarter, belies their assertive flavor. It's rare to run across them outside of their home turf. Oysters are both farmed and harvested wild. [9]
"Two-and-a-half-inch oysters are very popular for oysters on the half shell," Kana says. [10]
Oysters were plentiful and popular with European settlers, but by 1810, the natural beds showed signs of exhaustion. [8]
In Galveston Bay, boats have been topping out at 150 bags for most of the season. Texas oysters are being shipped to Florida and the Carolinas, where they're resold to other seafood concerns. Few of the end consumers on the East Coast ever realize they're eating Texas oysters. [10]
All three are grown near the mouth of a creek. That sweet freshwater, combined with the nutrients in the seawater, helps create the complex, subtle flavors that Hog Island oysters are known for. The oldest continuously run shellfish farm in the state, it's been in operation since 1909 with just two owners;. [11]
We opted for a booth, where it was a little hard to hear over the lively chatter and the Clemson-Florida State basketball game on TV. Though Southern oysters were on the menu, we opted for a sampler of Canada Cups, bluepoints and Montauk oysters, which came with cocktail and mignonette sauces. [12]
The illness can become serious for the very young, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems. Consumers who ate raw oysters on or after Dec. 3 and experienced these symptoms are encouraged to contact their health care providers and local health departments. Consumers concerned about the origin of oysters they have recently purchased should contact the place of purchase to determine if the oysters were harvested from the identified area during the Dec. 3-21 period. [13]
Oysters can also be collected by divers. In any case, when the oysters are collected, they are sorted to eliminate dead shells, unwanted catch, and other debris. Then they are taken to market where they are either canned or sold live. [4]
Note: Be aware that oysters are individuals and come in different sizes just like people. The pint of oysters called for in this recipe will not always contain the same number. It's a good idea to keep a splatter screen handy when frying oysters. [14]
In the United States, oysters were street food as recently as the 19th century, sold at stalls in New York and given away at San Francisco bars during the Gold Rush. This unchecked consumption came at a cost: Overfishing led to near-extinction on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. [9]
Consumers in high risk categories should avoid consumption of raw shellfish, particularly oysters. Oysters are filter feeding animals that can concentrate Vibrio bacteria from the water into their system. This concern exists for any raw oysters regardless of harvest from approved or questionable waters. 3. When eating shellfish, particularly oysters, be sure that they are properly and thoroughly cooked. [15]
Giant oyster in south Angola. Oysters are fished by simply gathering them from their beds. A variety of means are used. In very shallow waters they can be gathered by hand or with small rakes. [4]
All types of oysters (and, indeed, almost all other shelled molluscs) can secrete concretions that are known by biologists as pearls, but those which sometimes form in edible oysters are unattractive and have no market value at all. [4]
In the beginning of the 1800s, Wellfleet's native oyster population was nearly depleted. Aquaculture, as we know it today, began as Wellfleetians imported young oysters from points south, flavored and fattened them in local estuaries, then harvested them for sale in the lucrative Boston market. Although people may not agree on which oysters are best, they do agree a real difference exists among oysters grown in different locations. [5]
The illness typically lasts one to two days. Consumers who ate oyster products served in restaurants after February 1 and experienced symptoms of norovirus are encouraged to contact their healthcare provider and local health department. Consumers concerned about oysters purchased during this period should contact their place of purchase to determine if the oysters are from the affected lot of oysters. [16]
Oysters subject to the recall were mislabeled by the Rose Bay Oyster Company, indicating Galveston Bay as the harvest area; the implicated oysters were actually harvested from San Antonio Bay. [16]
AmeriPure's raw oysters are plump, salty, delicious - and safer for everyone to eat. That's because we use an all-natural, patented in-shell process to reduce the naturally occurring, but potentially harmful Vibio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria to nondetectable levels. [17]
Our oysters are never opened during the treatment, so all of the natural liquor remains. [17]
Pendrell sound is now a reserve for the catching of spat for cultivation To avoid spawning, sterile oysters are now cultured by crossbreeding tetraploid and diploid oysters. [4]
Oysters are subject to various diseases which can reduce oyster harvests and often severely deplete local populations. [4]
The size is mainly a function of species, and has no bearing on quality or taste. Where it matters is in the eating; most oysters are one-bite affairs, but larger ones like Bluepoints are better tackled with a knife and fork—or avoided if you don't feel up to swallowing their bulk. Like all shellfish, fresh oysters need to be alive when you purchase them. [9]
Two methods are commonly used. In both cases oysters are cultivated to the size of "spat", the point at which they attach themselves to a substrate. They may be allowed to mature further to form "seed" oysters. In either case they are then set out to mature. They may be distributed over existing oyster beds and left to mature naturally, to be collected using the methods for fishing wild oysters. Or they may be put in racks or bags and held above the bottom. [4]
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating an outbreak of norovirus-associated illness linked to eating raw oysters harvested from San Antonio Bay, TX. FDA advises consumers to avoid eating raw oysters harvested from this area after February 1, 2007, as a result of reports of illnesses in people who attended a Maryland event where these oysters were served. [16]
The oysters are harvested by lifting the bags or rack to the surface and removing mature oysters. The latter method avoids losses to some predators, but is more expensive. [4]
The oysters: Firm, meaty, clean-tasting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), harvested and shucked daily. These fast-growing oysters are the dominant species on the West Coast. At Drakes, you can buy them whole, for shucking yourself; shucked and packed in a jar; or on the half-shell, to slurp down at the outside table with some horseradish, a squeeze of lemon, or cocktail sauce. [11]
Oysters are filter-feeders : they draw water in over their gills through the beating of cilia. Suspended food plankton and particles are trapped in the mucus of a gill, and from there are transported to the mouth, where they are eaten, digested and expelled as feces or pseudofeces. [4]
Known as the American oyster and the Virginia oyster. In addition to its many natural predators, including crabs, worms and fish, oysters are prone to infection by the parasites that cause the aquatic diseases MSX and Dermo. The cavity inside the oyster's shells is always filled with seawater, so an oyster can survive for a long period of time without having to open its shells to feed. [6]
Oysters are able to change gender. During their first few months they are bisexual. By their first winter, most become male; in another year, most become female. [6]
No oysters are allowed to be harvested from waters that do not meet the strict criteria set by the Department of the Environment. This criteria exists in Maryland as well as nationally and are standards set by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. Oysters harvested from these approved waters are again tested at the processor level. [19]
The keepers are piled on deck, and the empty shells and small oysters are shoved overboard. [10]
In the United States today, oysters are most often cooked before consumption, but there is also a high demand for raw oysters on the half-shell (shooters) typically served at oyster bars. [4]
Whether oysters are predominantly eaten raw or cooked is a matter of personal preference. [4]
Oysters are commonly eaten raw in France in bars and as a 'bar fast food' but the home use tends to be mixed with a large usage in cooking - steamed or in paella or soups. Special knives for opening live oysters, such as this one, have short and stout blades and the best have a downward curve at the tip. [4]
Canned smoked oysters are also widely available as preserves with a long shelf life. Raw oysters were once a staple food for the poor in many countries with coastal access such as the United Kingdom of Britain and along the East Coast of the U.S. and are thus still easily found in any areas bordering a sea/ocean. [4]
Consumer Note Farmed oysters are available year-round and can be served raw (shucked or unshucked), smoked and canned, or frozen. [20]
Oysters are soft-bodied animals that have two hard, protective shells (a bivalve). They spend their entire lives in one underwater location. The shape of the oyster's shells varies, depending mostly upon how crowded they are in the oyster bed. [21]
Q. Can I eat oysters on a low cholesterol diet? A. Previously oysters were thought to contain high amounts of cholesterol but now, since new methods of calculating cholesterol levels are more accurate, oysters have been removed from the restricted list. [19]
Oysters are naturally low in fat, sodium, and calories. They are also a very good source of high quality protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and iron. [19]
The largest oysters are up to 3 feet (1 m) long, but most are a few inches long. [21]
Oysters are low in food energy ; one dozen raw oysters contain approximately 110 kilo-calories (460 kJ), and are rich in zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A. Unlike most shellfish, oysters can have a fairly long shelf-life: up to around two weeks; however, they should be consumed when fresh, as their taste reflects their age. [4]
The barbecued oysters are the best in Tomales Bay, and you'll be happy eating the thick sandwiches and herby clam chowder on the decks over the water. [11]
The texture is soft and fleshy, but crisp to the tooth. This is often influenced by the water that they are grown in with variations in salinity, minerals, and nutrients. Oysters are generally an expensive food in places where they are not harvested, and often they are eaten only on special occasions, such as Christmas. [4]
Purists insist on eating oysters raw, with no dressing save perhaps lemon juice, vinegar, or cocktail sauce. Raw oysters are regarded like wines in that they have complex flavors that vary greatly among varieties and regions: some taste sweet, others salty or with a mineral flavor, or even like melon. [4]
Females can produce about 100 million eggs per year. After spawning, oysters are thin and watery because they have used up their stored food reserves. They grow larger and stronger as the weather cools. [6]
As a keystone species, oysters provide habitat for an extensive array of marine life. [4]

KEY TOPICS

Section Contents:

* An oyster reef can encompass 50 times the surface area of an equally extensive flat bottom.(More…)

* Oysters are filter feeders.(More…)

* Always buy from a place with a good reputation and rapid turnover.(More…)

* Oysters are commonly eaten raw in France in bars and as a 'bar fast food' but the home use tends to be mixed with a large usage in cooking - steamed or in paella or soups.(More…)

* Currently, the states of Maryland and Virginia are evaluating whether an Asian oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis, might help restore a viable oyster population to the Bay.(More…)

* The eastern oyster is a bivalve mollusk with rough shells that vary in color from grayish to white.(More…)

* The largest oysters are up to 3 feet (1 m) long, but most are a few inches long.(More…)

An oyster reef can encompass 50 times the surface area of an equally extensive flat bottom. The oyster contributes to improved water quality through its filter feeding capacity. An oyster's mature shape often depends on the type of bottom to which it is originally attached, but it always orients itself with its outer, flared shell tilted upward. [4] The hard surfaces of oyster shells and the nooks between the shells provide places where a host of small animals can live. Hundreds of animals such as anemones, barnacles, and hooked mussels use oyster reefs as habitat. Many of these animals serve as food for larger animals, including fish such as striped bass, black drum and croakers. [4] Today that process would take almost a year, and sediment, nutrients, and algae can cause problems in local waters. Oysters filter these pollutants, and either eat them or shape them into small packets that are deposited on the bottom where they are harmless. Oysters breathe much like fish, using both gills and mantle. [4] In somewhat deeper water, long-handled rakes or oyster tongs are used to reach the beds. Patent tongs can be lowered on a line to reach beds which are too deep to reach directly. In all cases the manner of operation is the same: the waterman scrapes together a small pile of oysters, and then collects these by scooping them up with the rake or tongs. [4] Giant oyster in south Angola. Oysters are fished by simply gathering them from their beds. A variety of means are used. In very shallow waters they can be gathered by hand or with small rakes. [4]

The common name oyster is used for a number of different groups of bivalve mollusks, most of which live in marine habitats or brackish water. [4] The texture is soft and fleshy, but crisp to the tooth. This is often influenced by the water that they are grown in with variations in salinity, minerals, and nutrients. Oysters are generally an expensive food in places where they are not harvested, and often they are eaten only on special occasions, such as Christmas. [4] Oysters are filter-feeders : they draw water in over their gills through the beating of cilia. Suspended food plankton and particles are trapped in the mucus of a gill, and from there are transported to the mouth, where they are eaten, digested and expelled as feces or pseudofeces. [4]

Oysters usually mature by one year of age. They are protandric, which means that during their first year they spawn as males (releasing sperm into the water). As they grow larger over the next two or three years and develop greater energy reserves, they release eggs, as females. [4] The Whaleback Shell Midden in Maine was used for oyster harvesting from 2,200 to 1,000 years ago. [4] Pearls can also be cultivated by pearl farmers placing a nucleus, usually a piece of polished mussel shell, inside the oyster. [4] In some areas a dredge is used. This is a toothed bar attached to a chain bag. The dredge is towed through an oyster bed by a boat, picking up those oysters in its path. While dredges collect oysters more quickly, they can be very damaging to the oyster beds, and their use is in general strictly limited. [4] Two methods are commonly used. In both cases oysters are cultivated to the size of "spat", the point at which they attach themselves to a substrate. They may be allowed to mature further to form "seed" oysters. In either case they are then set out to mature. They may be distributed over existing oyster beds and left to mature naturally, to be collected using the methods for fishing wild oysters. Or they may be put in racks or bags and held above the bottom. [4] Within the United Kingdom, the town of Whitstable in the county of Kent is particularly noted for oyster farming from beds on the Kentish Flats that have been used since Roman times. [4] Oysters can be eaten half shelled, raw, smoked, boiled, baked, fried, roasted, stewed, canned, pickled, steamed, broiled (grilled) or used in a variety of drinks. [4] Whether oysters are predominantly eaten raw or cooked is a matter of personal preference. [4] Oysters from the Gulf of Mexico spawn throughout the year, but are delicious cooked or raw to the oyster connoisseur. [4] Oysters stored in water under refrigeration will open, utilize the small reserves of oxygen and die. Precautions should be taken when consuming them (see below). [4] There is also a second way in, referred to as the "sidedoor", which is about halfway along one side where the lips of the oyster widen so there is a slight indentation where a knife may successfully be inserted. This is generally a better way to open an oyster when it is a "crumbler" (i.e. one with a particularly soft shell either due to drills or the amount of calcium in the water). Either way, however, can be tricky when an oyster's shell is in such a poor condition. [4] A single female oyster can produce up to 100 million eggs annually. The eggs become fertilized in the water and develop into larvae, which eventually find suitable sites on which to settle, such as another oyster's shell. [4] Scientists believe that the once-flourishing oyster populations historically filtered the estuary's entire water volume of excess nutrients every three or four days. [4] For maximum shelf life, oysters should be stored out of water in refrigeration but not frozen and in 100% humidity. [4] Healthy oysters consume algae and other water-borne nutrients, each one filtering up to five litres of water per hour. [4] Oysters can also be collected by divers. In any case, when the oysters are collected, they are sorted to eliminate dead shells, unwanted catch, and other debris. Then they are taken to market where they are either canned or sold live. [4] A heavy glove should always be worn: if you don't cut yourself with the knife you can just as easily cut yourself on the oyster shell itself, which can be razor sharp. [4] There is a simple criterion: oysters must be capable of closing the shell tightly. [4] In three to six years, the oyster will produce a perfect pearl. These pearls are not as valuable as natural pearls, but look exactly the same. [4] In a haul of three tons of oysters, only around three or four oysters produce perfect pearls. [4] Ireland enjoys a long-standing tradition with regard to oysters where, typically, the shellfish is eaten live in conjunction with the national beverage, Guinness. [4] Evidence suggests that it was brought to the United States when Crassostrea gigas, a Japanese oyster variety, was introduced to Delaware Bay. [4] There are three main groups of oysters, the Ostrea species, the Crassostrea" species and the Saccostrea species. [4] Spat are oysters 25 mm or less in length. Many species of bivalve, oysters included, seem to be stimulated to settle by the proximity of adults of their species. Some tropical oysters in a different family, the family Isognomonidae, grow best on mangrove roots, and are exposed at low tide, making them easy to collect. In Trinidad in the West Indies tourists are often astounded when they are told that in the Caribbean, "oysters grow on trees." [4] An ostreolith from the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation of southern Utah. This ball of oysters is made up almost entirely of the species Liostrea strigilecula. [4] As a keystone species, oysters provide habitat for an extensive array of marine life. [4] The generally used method for opening oysters is to use a special knife (called an oyster knife, a variant of a shucking knife), with a short and thick blade about 2 inches long. [4] The oyster is used as a metaphor in an idiomatic saying, "The world is your oyster", which means that the whole world is laid out before you like a wonderful living buffet. [4] Sergius Orata of the Roman Republic is considered to have been the first major merchant and cultivator of oysters. Using his very considerable hydraulic knowledge, he built a complex cultivation system including channels and locks to control the sea tides. He was famous for this, and Roman people used to say he was so good that he could breed oysters on the roof of his house. [4] The disease is of no direct threat to any humans consuming infected oysters. [4] Oysters are subject to various diseases which can reduce oyster harvests and often severely deplete local populations. [4] " Dermo " ( Perkinsus marinus ) is caused by a protozoan parasite. It is a prevalent pathogen of oysters, causing massive mortality in oyster populations and poses a significant economic threat to the oyster industry. [4] Perhaps the definitive work on oysters as food is Consider the Oyster, by M. F. K. Fisher. [4] There are several oyster festivals held annually in the UK, e.g. Woburn Oyster Festival which is held in September. Similarly the seaside resort of Cancale in France is noted for its oysters, which also date from Roman times. [4] The oysters are harvested by lifting the bags or rack to the surface and removing mature oysters. The latter method avoids losses to some predators, but is more expensive. [4] The largest pearl-bearing oyster type is the saltwater Pinctada maxima, which is roughly the size of a dinner plate. [4] The Pacific (Japanese) oyster, Crassostrea gigas has also been grown in the outflow of mariculture ponds. [4] Oysters are sometimes cited as an aphrodisiac. It is disputed whether this is true. According to the Telegraph of London a team of "American and Italian researchers analysed bivalve molluscs - a group of shellfish that includes oysters - and found they were rich in rare amino acids that trigger increased levels of sex hormones." If there is such an effect, it may be due to the soft, moist texture and appearance of the oyster; it may also be due to their high zinc content. [4] An increase in water temperature prompts a few initial oysters to spawn. This triggers a spawning 'chain reaction', which clouds the water with millions of eggs and sperm. [4]

Gills filter plankton from the water, and strong adductor muscles are used to hold the shell closed. Some of the groups known as oysters, also known as mullusks (true oysters), are highly prized as food, both raw and cooked. Some other groups also called oysters, such as pearl oysters, are not widely eaten, at least not since recent times. [4] Oysters which are open and unresponsive are dead, and must be discarded. Some dead oysters, or oyster shells which are full of sand may also be closed, but they will make a distinctive noise when tapped: they are known as "clackers" for this reason. Opening oysters requires skill, for live oysters, outside of the water, tend to shut themselves tightly with a powerful muscle thus sealing in their fluids. [4] Any open oysters should be tapped on the shell: a live oyster will close up and is safe to eat. [4]

True (edible) oysters are incapable of making gem-quality pearls, although the opposite idea is a commonly-encountered misapprehension, often seen in illustrations or photographs where an edible oyster shell is mistakenly paired with a gem-quality pearl. [4] All types of oysters (and, indeed, almost all other shelled molluscs) can secrete concretions that are known by biologists as pearls, but those which sometimes form in edible oysters are unattractive and have no market value at all. [4] The size is mainly a function of species, and has no bearing on quality or taste. Where it matters is in the eating; most oysters are one-bite affairs, but larger ones like Bluepoints are better tackled with a knife and fork-or avoided if you don't feel up to swallowing their bulk. Like all shellfish, fresh oysters need to be alive when you purchase them. [9] Today all that has changed and we can enjoy oysters twelve months a year. Oysters are not only delicious, but they're also one of the most nutritionally well balanced of foods, containing protein, carbohydrates and lipids. [2] Folklore says that oysters should be eaten only in months with "r's" in them-September, October, etc. Maestro S.V.P. educates people that oysters can be eaten 12 months a year. [2] An oyster produces a pearl when foreign material becomes trapped inside the shell. [2] The notion that oysters should not be eaten in "r"-less monthsthat is, months that occur during warm weathermay have started in the days when oysters where shipped without adequate refrigeration and could spoil. [2] The National Heart and Lung Institute suggest oysters as an ideal food for inclusion in low-cholesterol diets. [2] Four or five medium size oysters supply the recommended daily allowance of iron, copper, iodine, magnesium, calcium, zinc, manganese and phosphorus. [2]


Oysters are filter feeders. They feed by opening their shells and pumping water through their gills to filter out plankton and other particles. [6] Concentrated in areas with shell, hard sand or firm mud bottoms. These areas are called oyster bars, beds or rocks. [6] During cooler months, oysters can live out of the water for extended amounts of time. [6] Known as the American oyster and the Virginia oyster. In addition to its many natural predators, including crabs, worms and fish, oysters are prone to infection by the parasites that cause the aquatic diseases MSX and Dermo. The cavity inside the oyster's shells is always filled with seawater, so an oyster can survive for a long period of time without having to open its shells to feed. [6] Females can produce about 100 million eggs per year. After spawning, oysters are thin and watery because they have used up their stored food reserves. They grow larger and stronger as the weather cools. [6] Oysters are able to change gender. During their first few months they are bisexual. By their first winter, most become male; in another year, most become female. [6] Oysters can be found in subtidal areas in the Bay and its tributaries, from depths of 8 to 35 feet. [6] Oysters attach to one another, forming dense reefs that provide habitat for many other fish and invertebrates. [6] Oysters spawn in early summer in response to rising water temperatures. Adults release eggs and sperm into the water, where they are fertilized. [6]


Always buy from a place with a good reputation and rapid turnover. Since they are alive, oysters need to be babied a little bit. Wrap them loosely in a towel, paper towel, or paper bag (all damp); put them in the fridge, and plan to use them within a day or so. Don't store them in water or in plastic, as they can literally suffocate. [9] In the old days, the lack of refrigeration made it risky to eat oysters during the hot months. That's no longer the case—oysters do spawn in the warmer weather, but they're watery and less flavorful during this time. While champagne is a traditional accompaniment to oysters, it's more a marriage of convenience, since both are considered decadent party foods. [9] Very few foods can claim a history like that of oysters. They have been harvested and consumed since Roman times, are believed to have aphrodisiacal powers, and have managed to be classified as both peasant food and haute cuisine. [9] With our expert tips, you can keep oyster eating from feeling like a shell game. [9] Remove the top shell, then carefully slide the knife underneath the oyster to detach it. [9] Olympia oysters are native to the Pacific Northwest. Their small size, with meat often only the size of a quarter, belies their assertive flavor. It's rare to run across them outside of their home turf. Oysters are both farmed and harvested wild. [9] In the United States, oysters were street food as recently as the 19th century, sold at stalls in New York and given away at San Francisco bars during the Gold Rush. This unchecked consumption came at a cost: Overfishing led to near-extinction on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. [9] For instance, wild belon oysters that have to be hand-harvested by scuba divers command a premium, says Michael Garvey, general manager of New York's Grand Central Oyster Bar. [9] Sandy Ingber, executive chef of the Grand Central Oyster Bar, shows Portfolio.com his oyster know-how. [9]

Jeff Temner, director of culinary operations for the Legal Sea Foods company, sees cocktail sauce as a good bridge ingredient for oyster novices. [9] Most of the oysters served in restaurants range from half-dollar-size to palm-size. [9] Oysters should be tightly shut or, if slightly open, should close when tapped. Avoid ones that gape open (they're already dead), or give off a sewage smell. [9] Kumamoto oysters originally came from Japan but are now grown along the western coast of North America. Kumamotos are approachable because of their smaller size and sweet, mild flavor, says Jeremy Anderson, executive chef at Elliott's Oyster House in Seattle. [9]


Oysters are commonly eaten raw in France in bars and as a 'bar fast food' but the home use tends to be mixed with a large usage in cooking - steamed or in paella or soups. Special knives for opening live oysters, such as this one, have short and stout blades and the best have a downward curve at the tip. [4] Oysters are low in food energy ; one dozen raw oysters contain approximately 110 kilo-calories (460 kJ), and are rich in zinc, iron, calcium, and vitamin A. Unlike most shellfish, oysters can have a fairly long shelf-life: up to around two weeks; however, they should be consumed when fresh, as their taste reflects their age. [4] Canned smoked oysters are also widely available as preserves with a long shelf life. Raw oysters were once a staple food for the poor in many countries with coastal access such as the United Kingdom of Britain and along the East Coast of the U.S. and are thus still easily found in any areas bordering a sea/ocean. [4]

Purists insist on eating oysters raw, with no dressing save perhaps lemon juice, vinegar, or cocktail sauce. Raw oysters are regarded like wines in that they have complex flavors that vary greatly among varieties and regions: some taste sweet, others salty or with a mineral flavor, or even like melon. [4]

The eastern oyster was introduced to California waters in 1875, while the Pacific oyster was introduced there in 1929. Proposals for further such introductions remain controversial. [4] The Pacific oyster prospered in Pendrell Sound where the surface water is typically warm enough for spawning in the summer. [4] The current market is dominated by the larger Pacific oyster and rock oyster varieties which are farmed all year round. [4] The borough of Colchester (which was briefly the capital of Roman Britain - during the Roman invasion) holds an annual Oyster Feast in October of each year, at which the "Colchester Natives" (the native oyster, Ostrea Edulis) are consumed. [4]

MSX ( M ultinucleated S phere X ) is caused by the protozoan Haplosporidium nelsoni, generally seen as a multi-nucleated plasmodium. It is infectious and causes heavy mortality in the Eastern Oyster; survivors, however, are seen to develop resistance and can be used to help propagate resistant populations. It is associated with high salinity and water temperatures. [4] Examples are the Edible Oyster, Ostrea edulis, Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, Olympia Oyster Ostreola conchaphila, Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas, Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata, and the Wellfleet oyster (a variety of C. virginica ). [4] The "true oysters" are members of the family Ostreidae. This family includes the edible oysters, which mainly belong to the genera Ostrea, Crassostrea, Ostreola or Saccostrea. [4]

A number of bivalve mollusks other than edible oysters and pearl oysters also have common names that include the word "oyster", usually because they either taste or look like oysters, or because they yield noticeable pearls. [4]

In many areas non-native oysters have been introduced in attempts to prop up failing harvests of native varieties. [4] In the United States today, oysters are most often cooked before consumption, but there is also a high demand for raw oysters on the half-shell (shooters) typically served at oyster bars. [4] Pendrell sound is now a reserve for the catching of spat for cultivation To avoid spawning, sterile oysters are now cultured by crossbreeding tetraploid and diploid oysters. [4]

At the north end of the San Francisco Ferry Building,the Bay Area's shrine to local farmers, artisan producers, and world-class food, oyster devotees slurp down plump, succulent Hog Island oysters laid out on a bed of ice while taking in a spectacular view of the Bay. [22] Because raw foods including oysters may carry bacteria, persons with chronic liver disease, impaired immune systems or cancer should avoid eating raw oysters. [2] Oysters are an excellent source of vitamins A, B1(thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), C (ascorbic acid) and D (calciferol). [2]

Brady's Oysters is a family owned and operated business spanning 4 generations offering oysters grown on Suspended Culture, a unique method developed by Brady Engvall in the early 1970's. This method keeps the oyster out of the mud, yielding a better tasting oyster as you can see for yourself by ordering right now. Check out these Pics of "Bradys Oysters Clean Water Oyster Feed" which is now held on the second Saturday in September. [3] If you want to make sure it is still alive and safe to eat, tap it with a knife or run it under cold water. If the oyster fails to close its shell, discard it as it is probably dead. [19] No oysters are allowed to be harvested from waters that do not meet the strict criteria set by the Department of the Environment. This criteria exists in Maryland as well as nationally and are standards set by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. Oysters harvested from these approved waters are again tested at the processor level. [19] Q. How long can I refrigerate oysters in the shell? A. About 5 - 7 days. When you store fresh oysters in the shell in the refrigerator, leave the grit and dirt on them. This helps insulate and keep the oysters moist. Make sure they have air, do not put them in a sealed plastic bag because they need to breathe. Put them in a burlap bag or cover them with a damp towel. [19] Q. How can I be assured that the oysters I purchase in the market are safe and wholesome to consume? A. The waters covering all charted oyster beds are periodically sampled by the Maryland Department of the Environment, Division of Water Quality Monitoring, to determine the purity of the water. [19] Sometimes refrigerated storage will cause gaping so don't be alarmed if the oyster shells are not tightly closed—give it the "tap" test. [19] Each year during oyster season, the Maryland Seafood Marketing Program receives many questions from consumers concerning the purchase, storage, preparation and nutrition of oysters. [19] Q. Can I eat oysters on a low cholesterol diet? A. Previously oysters were thought to contain high amounts of cholesterol but now, since new methods of calculating cholesterol levels are more accurate, oysters have been removed from the restricted list. [19] Q. What is MSX and can it effect humans? A. MSX is a disease that harms oysters but cannot be transmitted to humans. [19] Label the contents of the package, date and freeze. Even though shucked frozen oysters have a 3 - 6 month storage life, plan to use them as soon as you can. [19]


Currently, the states of Maryland and Virginia are evaluating whether an Asian oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis, might help restore a viable oyster population to the Bay. Researchers, resource managers, conservationists, and those in the industry are considering whether the risks of such an introduction would outweigh the potential benefits. [23] With many possibilities, but no clear-cut solution, the restoration of oysters in the Chesapeake faces an uncertain future. [23] Oysters also played a key ecological role in the Chesapeake, filtering algae and providing habitat and shelter for other animals and underwater plants. [23] Eastern oysters, including Bluepoints, Wellfleets, and Malpaques, grow from the Canadian Maritimes down to the Gulf of Mexico. Many restaurants that specialize in oysters don't serve Gulf oysters raw, however, because naturally occurring bacteria is at higher levels in those warmer waters. [9] There are dissenters. "I like these American condiments that we grew up with, so I'm a fan of cocktail sauce," says Rebecca Charles, owner of Pearl Oyster Bar in New York. [9]


The eastern oyster is a bivalve mollusk with rough shells that vary in color from grayish to white. [6] The shell is generated by the mantle, a thin layer of tissue separating the shell from the soft body. When an oyster is threatened, it closes its shells, using the very strong adductor muscle. Oysters draw in water through their gills, and extract oxygen and filter out floating algae (which they use for food). An oyster changes its sex during its life; it starts out as a male and often ends as a female. [21] When a grain of sand (or other irritating substance) gets stuck between the oyster's mantle and shell, the oyster secrets nacre. This shiny substance coats the grain of sand, and over the years, forms a lustrous pearl. [21]

Oysters are soft-bodied animals that have two hard, protective shells (a bivalve). They spend their entire lives in one underwater location. The shape of the oyster's shells varies, depending mostly upon how crowded they are in the oyster bed. [21] Predators of the Oyster : Many animals eat oysters, including whelks, sea stars sea stars, and people. [21]

To learn more about the Program's recent oyster restoration efforts go to the Virginia Seaside Heritage Program Virginia Seaside Heritage Program. Oyster reefs can have fifty times the surface area of an equally extensive flat bottom! Nooks and crannies between all the shells provide habitat for an enormous range of other animals, such as worms, snails, sea squirts, sponges, small crabs and fishes. [24] Between 2001 and 2003 Virginia CZM invested over $1.5 million in the Virginia Oyster Heritage Program, a public-private partnership initiated by the Program. This partnership constructed over 80 sanctuary reefs and 1000 acres of harvest area in Virginia's coastal waters. [24] Oysters Modeling in Virginia's Schools The Office of Environmental Education at DEQ has worked closely over the last two years with two schools in Tidewater Virginia to develop and implement, "Oyster Model Schools," a model instructional program that uses estuarine and oyster reef ecology as an organizing theme for instruction. [24]

Oysters consume algae by filtering water at a rate of up to 1.3 gallons per hour! Scientists believe that the Bay's once-flourishing oyster populations cleaned the estuary's entire water volume of algae and sediments every three or four days. For more than 100 years, Virginia's watermen made their living harvesting oysters for resale to restaurants and seafood wholesale companies. [24]

The reef offers a fascinating view of predator-prey relationships and the coastal food chain. Answer: Their hard outer shells provide protection from predators living on the reef. When the oysters is still young, its shell is soft and it is prey to animals like the Blue Crab. [24] When the veliger settles permanently on the shell of a mature oyster, it is called spat. Answer: An oyster reef is home to oysters both young and old. [24]

Funding for the U.S.-Japan Oyster Reef Symposium is being furnished by the Nature Conservation Society of Japan, further demonstrating the value of partnerships. Urara Takashima visited Virginia last spring to learn more about the state's oyster reef restoration efforts and gardening practices after she discovered wild oysters in Tokyo Bay. [24] "Omar of the Reef", mascot of the Virginia Oyster Heritage Program, made a special guest appearance representing the River's oyster population. Read their story. [24] Official mascot of the Virginia Oyster Heritage Program, Omar is available as a costumed character and is featured on a temporary tattoo with the message "I Filter Water!" Call while supplies last! (804) 698-4320 or e-mail: vog.ainigriv.qed|remtiW.ainigriV#vog.ainigriv.qed|remtiW.ainigriV vog.ainigriv.qed|remtiW.ainigriV#vog.ainigriv.qed|remtiW.ainigriV vog.ainigriv.qed|remtiW.ainigriV#vog.ainigriv.qed|remtiW.ainigriV . [24] The partnership between Virginia and Ms. Takashima began with an e-mail to the Virginia CZM Program for more information about oyster reef habitat. [24] Virginia Institute of Marine Science Virginia Institute of Marine Science : curriculum supplement and teacher training program called VORTEX, Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching Experience. [24] The collaborative symposium, organized by Japanese researcher Urara Takashima, will bring together oyster experts from the two countries, including Dr. Mark Luckenbach from the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, to focus on the ecological value of natural oyster reef habitat. [24] Help us spread the word. There is much each of us can do - whether it's oyster gardening, donating to the Virginia Oyster Reef Heritage Foundation Virginia Oyster Reef Heritage Foundation, or sharing the educational products we have to offer below. [24] The program responded with oyster educational materials, including images of Omar. Ms. Takashima shared these materials in her efforts to educate Japanese citizens about the value of oyster reef habitat. At the behest of school children, who thought Omar needed a Japanese friend, she created "Kaki-hime", or "princess oyster". [24] The eggs are fertilized in the water and soon develop into larvae, or veligers, which are drawn to the chemicals released by older oysters on the bottom. Oysters need to settle in a suitable spot, such as another oyster's shell. [24] Oysters usually mature by age one. They are protandric, which means that in the first year they spawn as males, but as they grow larger and develop more energy reserves in the next two to three years, they spawn as females. [24] Underwater plants need sunlight to grow. When oysters eat this excess algae, they help seagrass grow! ( Learn more about seagrasses. [24] Omar received an official letter of invitation to assist with outreach at the U.S.-Japan Oyster Reef Symposium. [24] An increase in water temperatures triggers the male oyster to release sperm and the female to release eggs into the water. This triggers a chain reaction of spawning which clouds the water with millions of eggs and sperm. [24] Chesapeake Bay Foundation Chesapeake Bay Foundation : middle school curriculum (WAVE), field trips and student oyster restoration projects. [24]


The largest oysters are up to 3 feet (1 m) long, but most are a few inches long. [21] FDA confirmed the presence of norovirus in shell oysters harvested from the West Karako Bay section of Growing Area 3 and were served at the restaurant. [13] The original shipper of the oysters is Prestige Oyster Company of Theriot, La. The company shipped the oysters to Bon Secour Fisheries in Bon Secour, Ala. Bon Secour Fisheries, in turn, shipped the oysters to the restaurant in Chattanooga. [13]


IN-DEPTH

Section Contents:

* We feature the following fresh items: Oysters in the Shell, Oyster Meat, Oyster Cocktails, Smoked Oysters, Steamer Clams, and More!(More…)

* With the native oyster at historic lows, scientists and policy makers are exploring ways to restore oysters to the Bay.(More…)

* The entire staff at Oysters Too knows and appreciates the importance of our regular, occasional and new customers.(More…)

* In other countries, testicles are known as sweet meats.(More…)

* The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning consumers not to eat raw oysters harvested from West Karako Bay, a section of Growing Area 3 in Louisiana.(More…)

* While not a serious threat to healthy individuals, consumption of raw or undercooked oysters by at-risk at-risk at-risk at-risk at-risk individuals may cause serious illness or even death from Vibrio vulnificus bacteria.(More…)

* Choose 22 online pharmacy to +0400. php provide website HIGH to +0400. php your viagra oysters online time Publishes viagra oysters and books especially military and regional viagrra Tue your Apr viagrq to +0400.(More…)

* If you can't get to a festival, many restaurants and bars in Montana, Idaho, and Kansas serve Rocky Mountain oysters all year long and with less fanfare.(More…)

* Our printable brochure printable brochure explains how we grow our oysters in Point Judith Pond, a well flushed tidal salt pond in Narragansett, Rhode Island.(More…)

* Learn more about Virginia's oyster program, or contact Chris Moore at 757/622-1964 or gro.fbc|eroomc#gro.fbc|eroomc gro.fbc|eroomc#gro.fbc|eroomc.(More…)

* Eating raw oysters is exquisitely perverse.(More…)

* Oysters form large reefs that provide habitat for a wide range of marine plants and animals.(More…)

* Note: Be aware that oysters are individuals and come in different sizes just like people.(More…)

* "Enclosed within a thick sturdy shell, the soft body of an oyster is adapted for filtering minute planktonic organisms from the surrounding water.(More…)

* Our oysters are never opened during the treatment, so all of the natural liquor remains.(More…)

* The staff of Tomales Bay Oyster Company is pleased to welcome you to our website.(More…)

* "I feel good about that; my goal was 15 dozen," Zukowski said.(More…)

* AmeriPure's raw oysters are plump, salty, delicious - and safer for everyone to eat.(More…)

* The implicated oyster beds in the San Antonio Bay were closed by the Texas Department of Health Services on February 24, 2007 and remain closed.(More…)

* Florida's estuaries provide suitable conditions and a plentiful food supply for Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to grow rapidly.(More…)

* Eating raw oysters with hot sauce or while drinking alcohol does NOT kill the bacteria.(More…)

* Six oyster companies operate in and around Tomales Bay, and three are open to the public for tours and tasting.(More…)

* Oyster seed can be reared in hatcheries or collected from the wild, and then grown in natural intertidal or subtidal waters.(More…)

* Consumers in high risk categories should avoid consumption of raw shellfish, particularly oysters.(More…)

* Steamer - add oysters to water that is already steaming and cook live oysters until the shells open; once open steam for another 4-9 minutes.(More…)

* Blankenship, K., Expanded use of non-native oyster seems likely in Bay Expanded use of non-native oyster seems likely in Bay, Bay Journal.(More…)

* McGuire said widespread introduction of non-native oysters to the bay and its tributaries would be "criminal."(More…)

We feature the following fresh items: Oysters in the Shell, Oyster Meat, Oyster Cocktails, Smoked Oysters, Steamer Clams, and More! Check out our Products Products and Prices Prices Prices pages for more information. [25] Oysters turn many different colors for different reasons: rapid change in temperature, or what the oyster has eaten. The color of fresh oysters may be described as creamy, gray, brownish, pale yellow, red, green or a combination of these colors. They are safe for consumption. Q. What is the small crab-like animal found in some raw oysters? A. It's actually a pea-crab which lives in the gills of the oyster and feeds on the same foods that the oyster is filtering for itself. [19] Q. Are raw oysters safe to eat? A. Maryland shellfish remain safe to eat! There have been no disease outbreaks associated with oysters harvested in Maryland in more than 50 years. [19] Q. Are oysters fattening? A. Eastern oysters in the raw form are very low in calories, only 20 per ounce. If you bread them, fry them and add tartar sauce, the calories will increase many fold, so watch how you prepare them. [19] Q. How long can I store shucked oysters in the refrigerator? A. Fresh shucked oysters have about a 7 - 10 day refrigerated storage life. Make sure to put them in the coldest part of the refrigerator. [19] Q. What should I look for in purchasing fresh shucked oysters? A. Fresh shucked oysters should be plump and a creamy white to gray color. [19]

Oysters are naturally low in fat, sodium, and calories. They are also a very good source of high quality protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and iron. [19]


With the native oyster at historic lows, scientists and policy makers are exploring ways to restore oysters to the Bay. [23] The native eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, usually lives in water depths of between 8 and 25 feet and naturally forms three-dimensional intertidal reefs. An oyster orients itself with the flared edge of its shell tilted upward. [24] The Virginia CZM Program has invested significant coordinative effort and funding to help protect and restore our native oyster populations. [24]


The entire staff at Oysters Too knows and appreciates the importance of our regular, occasional and new customers. [26] This is one of the most sought-after recipes in the world. Even the ex-employees of this restaurant won't talk about how Antoine's Oysters Rockefeller are made. [27]


In other countries, testicles are known as sweet meats. The dish is most commonly found served at festivals, such as the ones in Montana and Phoenix, Arizona, amongst ranching families, or at certain eating establishments and bars that specialize in it. Eagle, Idaho has the "World's largest Rocky Mountain Oyster feed" during its Eagle Fun Days (typically the first weekend in June). [7] Rocky Mountain oysters are sometimes confused with lamb fries or animelles (lamb testicles), which are served in a manner similar to Rocky Mountain oysters. Boar (hog) testicles are served in some Midwest areas such as in Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa. [7]


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning consumers not to eat raw oysters harvested from West Karako Bay, a section of Growing Area 3 in Louisiana. These oysters, harvested from Dec. 3 through Dec. 21, may be contaminated with norovirus. [13] The illness can become serious for the very young, the elderly and people with weakened immune systems. Consumers who ate raw oysters on or after Dec. 3 and experienced these symptoms are encouraged to contact their health care providers and local health departments. Consumers concerned about the origin of oysters they have recently purchased should contact the place of purchase to determine if the oysters were harvested from the identified area during the Dec. 3-21 period. [13]

Steamer - add oysters to water that are already steaming and cook live oysters until the shells open; once open steam for another 4-9 minutes. [13] FDA has received reports of norovirus infection in seven individuals who ate raw oysters on Dec. 13 at a restaurant in Chattanooga, Tenn. The Tennessee Department of Health's test results from two of the ill patients were positive for norovirus. [13]


While not a serious threat to healthy individuals, consumption of raw or undercooked oysters by at-risk at-risk at-risk at-risk at-risk individuals may cause serious illness or even death from Vibrio vulnificus bacteria. [28] In 2003, Barbara opened B&G Oysters providing the city with a classic yet stylish oyster bar. At the center of the dining room of this subterranean restaurant is an open kitchen surrounded by a white marble bar and black bar stools. [29] The menu offers exquisitely fresh seafood including a daily selection of 12+ oyster varieties, ready to be shucked, New England classics like lobster rolls and fried clams, and Mediterranean-inspired dishes. [29] Never tried a Gigamoto? No worries. This is a staff that loves their mollusks and bivalves: they can discuss oysters the way other servers might discuss a fine wine, able to describe a particular oysters origin, flavor profile, and farming method. [29]


Choose 22 online pharmacy to +0400. php provide website HIGH to +0400. php your viagra oysters online time Publishes viagra oysters and books especially military and regional viagrra Tue your Apr viagrq to +0400. [30] The keepers are piled on deck, and the empty shells and small oysters are shoved overboard. [10] The Mexican deckhands sort the "keepers" out of the gray jumble of empty shells and undersized oysters, throwing the legal ones into a growing pile on deck. Then they shove the empty shells and too-small oysters overboard. [10] "Two-and-a-half-inch oysters are very popular for oysters on the half shell," Kana says. [10] There's a large public oyster reef in the middle of the bay where anyone with a license can harvest oysters. [10] The waters of the bay are calm, the sky is blue, and the water temperature is hovering at 60 degrees — perfect oyster weather. [10] Then there are four "conditional" zones, all of which are closed today because of excessive rainfall. (Runoff after a big rain is a major source of pollution in the bay.) Oyster leases are areas leased from the state by private companies; marked by buoys, they're off-limits except to permitted boats. [10] Kana ordered all of the Trpanj' s oysters dumped overboard and fined the boat more than $250, Misho Ivic tells me later. "Why wasn't the lease properly marked?" I ask him. "The thieves cut your markers first," Ivic fumes, "so they don't get caught stealing your oysters." [10] Everybody in the business knows the rules. The unprecedented number of oyster boats working Galveston Bay this year is putting tremendous pressure on the system. [10] There's a subtle nuttiness in the chewy bit that surrounds the foot. Some 430 oyster boats are working in Galveston Bay this season, more than double last year. [10] I was more than a little surprised to learn that, right now, acre for underwater acre, the most productive oyster reefs in North America are in Galveston Bay. [10] "You must be having a busy day," I say, looking out over the bay. "I've heard that there are 430 oyster boats working on Galveston Bay this year." "That's about right," says the game warden. [10] In Galveston Bay, boats have been topping out at 150 bags for most of the season. Texas oysters are being shipped to Florida and the Carolinas, where they're resold to other seafood concerns. Few of the end consumers on the East Coast ever realize they're eating Texas oysters. [10] The Trpanj, which is named after a village in Croatia, is owned by the same Croatian-American family that owns Misho's Oyster Company, the largest oyster processor on Galveston Bay. They also own the oyster lease. [10]

"Captain, you are working a leased area. Do you have a permit to be on this lease?" Rivas doesn't have the right paperwork. The other game warden accompanies the captain while he goes to get the boat's oyster license. [10] The Trpanj is a typical oyster boat, wide across the middle with a huge foredeck; it looks like a barge with an upturned nose. [10] "Are the oysters the right size?" I ask. "Most of them are okay," he says. He holds up an offender that slips through the measuring device. [10]


If you can't get to a festival, many restaurants and bars in Montana, Idaho, and Kansas serve Rocky Mountain oysters all year long and with less fanfare. [31] Rocky Mountains oysters - also known as prairie oysters, Montana tendergroins, cowboy caviar, swinging beef, and calf fires - are true Western delicacies. What are Rocky Mountain oysters? They are that part of the bull that is removed in his youth so that he may thereby be more tractable, grow meatier, and behave less masculine. [31]


Our printable brochure printable brochure explains how we grow our oysters in Point Judith Pond, a well flushed tidal salt pond in Narragansett, Rhode Island. [32]

W ithout question, there is an overwhelming need to inform at-risk oyster consumers about the potential hazard associated with eating raw oysters (3) opnbrkt3clsbrkt. As such, this website is dedicated to educating the oyster consuming public. It provides a thorough background on Vibrio vulnificus and the health conditions that place an individual in the at-risk category, as well as present tasty oyster products with reduced risk for all consumers to enjoy, including at-risk consumers. [28] If you have liver disease, diabetes or a weak immune system, you should avoid raw oysters. [28] The oysters themselves (not the shells) should be no more than 1 to 1 1/2 inches in diameter. [33] Oysters Rockefeller is a dish of oysters with a sauce, made up of eighteen ingredients, including absinthe. It is usually served in oyster shells. [33] Spoon an equal amount of the prepared spinach mixture over each oyster and spread to the rim of the shell. [33] No other American dish has received so much praise and attention as Oysters Rockefeller. [33] Any variety of oysters will work; just make sure the oysters you choose are as fresh as possible, still alive, and tightly closed. [33]


Learn more about Virginia's oyster program, or contact Chris Moore at 757/622-1964 or gro.fbc|eroomc#gro.fbc|eroomc gro.fbc|eroomc#gro.fbc|eroomc. [18] Learn more about Maryland's oyster program, or contact Stephanie Reynolds at 443/482-2164 or gro.fbc|sdlonyers#gro.fbc|sdlonyers gro.fbc|sdlonyers#gro.fbc|sdlonyers. [18] Sediment and nutrients (chiefly nitrogen) cause problems in Bay waters. Oysters filter these pollutants by either consuming them or shape them into small packets, which are deposited on the bottom where they are not harmful. [34] The oysters in the Bay could once filter a volume of water equal to that of the entire Bay (about 19 trillion gallons) in a week. [34]

The hard surfaces of oyster shells and the nooks between the shells provide places where small marine animals live. [34] Hundreds of animals use oyster bars: grass shrimp, amphipods, bryozoans, anemones, barnacles, oyster drills, hooked mussels, mud crabs, and red beard sponge to name a few. Many of these serve as food for larger animals including striped bass, weakfish, black drum, croakers, and blue crabs. [34] What most people know about oysters is how they like them prepared. For more than 100 years, Chesapeake Bay watermen have made their living harvesting oysters for resale to restaurants and seafood wholesale companies. [34] Anyone who fishes the Bay knows that oyster reefs are among the best places to fish because they are teeming with life that attract large predator fish, such as striped bass and sea trout. [34] Mentions marine biologist Kim Tetrault. On the writer's third trip to Greenport, their first cage yielded 700 oysters, a second cage yielded almost as many, and, after the third, Osinski had nearly 2,000 oysters. They hadn't caught somethine wild and rare; they'd merely relocated parcels that Osinski had dropped in the water previously. [1] The writer next met Osinski in Greenport on the first day of winter. As they had a breakfast of oysters, the writer asked Osinski if he chewed; Osinski slurped, but didn't chew. When he eats oyster, Osinski said, he feels like he's "connecting to something primordial." [1] Oysters today are mainly a nostalgia food, rarely eaten at home but served in restaurants. [1] The writer calls oysters the food equivalent of the salty air. Eric Ripert, chef of Le Bernardin, admitted that he chewed oysters. He claims his mother warned him that if he didn't chew, the oyster would be alive in his stomach. [1] I'm a new man" Osinski was born in 1954, and grew up in Mobile, Alabama. The writer ran into him a year later, after a morning of his deliveries. Gramercy Tavern had taken his oysters and other restaurants-Esca, Four Seasons, BLT Fish, La Bernardin-had followed. [1] Mentions Sandy Ingber, the chef at Grand Central's Oyster Bar. Osinski's oysters are called Widow's Holes, after the pond behind his house. [1] Greenport mayor Dave Kapell told the writer about two giant canneries-Lester Toner Company and the Long Island Oyster Company-which went bankrupt in the 1960s. [1]


Eating raw oysters is exquisitely perverse. If they're freshly shucked, as they ought to be, you're putting the mollusk into your mouth while it's still alive. [10] Oysters were part and parcel of life in New York, eaten for breakfast lunch and dinner, pickled, stewed, baked roasted, fried, scalloped and in soups, patties and puddings. In the excerpts of the report in each borough activity, it seems evident that garbage and overfishing were already taking a heavy toll, even when the oyster industry was in its heyday of the late 1800s. A few years after this report, many of the waters were closed after outbreaks of typhoid. [8] From 1880 to 1920, New York was the undisputed oyster capital of the United States. Dredging techniques had increased oyster catches more than 10 times, and individual oyster men were forming corporations to get access to these techniques and equipment to harvest in deeper waters. [8]

The 1885 Commissioner of Fisheries' report (see link above) estimated that 1,200 families were supported by the oyster industry on the south shore of Long Island, including Jamaica Bay. [8] Canarsee Indians dug clams and oysters west of Coney Islands in Jamaica Bay in Brooklyn and Queens. [8]

By the 1880s, the natural beds were nearly all fished out, and a much greater part of oystering was in planted beds. The rising prices of oysters had driven the working class Canal Street oysters cellars of 30s and 40s out of business. [8] Oystering supported large numbers of families, and oyster theft was a problem for many planters. Other jobs surrounded the oyster business, brokerage, import/export, street vendors, restaurants, and many involved in the harvest and transportation, including railroads and ferries. [8] In a short time, oyster planting and cultivation became a major metropolitan industry. [8] Oysters were plentiful and popular with European settlers, but by 1810, the natural beds showed signs of exhaustion. [8] Report: In 1885, Eugene Blackford, Commmissioner of Fisheries in charge of Oyster Investigation presented his report to the Legislature of the State of New York. [8]


Oysters form large reefs that provide habitat for a wide range of marine plants and animals. They feed by filtering microscopic plants from the water, and in the process improve water quality and clarity. Rebuilding reefs and stocking them with oysters is a high priority for the Bay. It is a long-term process that will require the participation and commitment of federal and state agencies and citizens alike for many years. It is important to restore native oysters to the Chesapeake. [18] CBF's oyster restoration program provides citizens with the tools and information needed to help restore native oysters to the Bay. [18]

Today, as a result of decades of pollution, over-harvesting, and disease, the Bay's native oyster population is merely about 2% of historic levels. They remain an important part of the Bay's ecology. [18]


Note: Be aware that oysters are individuals and come in different sizes just like people. The pint of oysters called for in this recipe will not always contain the same number. It's a good idea to keep a splatter screen handy when frying oysters. [14] For 30 years, Elliott's Oyster House has been Seattle's showcase for classic Northwest seafood. This classic seafood house is renown for simple preparations that highlight the natural flavors of the finest seafood in the Pacific Northwest. [35] Elliott's specializes in serving fresh local Dungeness crab, wild Northwest salmon, Alaskan halibut, fresh Pacific fin fish, Northwest shellfish, and our specialty, fresh oysters. [35] The unique location and long term relationship with oyster farmers allows for one of the largest selections of fresh oysters in the world. [35] The impressive 21-foot-long oyster bar is a unique reminder of Elliott's commanding superiority in the world of oysters. [35] Here you will find a sample of the wide variety of oysters we may have available for the day. [35]


"Enclosed within a thick sturdy shell, the soft body of an oyster is adapted for filtering minute planktonic organisms from the surrounding water. [36] Oysters filter feed on microoranisms that are brought into the shell with the current. [36] NEW ORLEANS - Patrick "Deep Dish" Bertoletti looked down at the litter of empty oyster shells in front of him and savored the sweet taste of victory. [37]

"Oysters are pretty liquid," said Lee, who weighs 105 pounds despite being on the pro-eating tour for the past year. [37] The Acme World Oyster Eating championship belt - leather, with a silver dish featuring an oyster on the half-shell - hung on Bertoletti's skinny hips. [37] Maryland and Virginia are preparing an Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to assess whether an Asian oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis, might help restore a viable oyster population to the Bay. [38]

Management efforts helped keep population levels steady for nearly 50 years, until the 1970s. Unfortunately, during that window of relative stability, two oyster diseases settled in the population and began to take their toll. [38] Scientists and resource managers are now left with the difficult task of deciding how to best restore oysters in the Bay. [38]


Our oysters are never opened during the treatment, so all of the natural liquor remains. [17] Wellfleet waters have significant tides, averaging around 12 feet, and broad, shallow estuaries. This means a high volume of fresh, plankton-rich ocean water washes swiftly through and feeds the oyster beds twice a day. [5] Experienced tasters find that oysters that frow in saltier waters tend to have a cleaner, sharper flavor. [5] Over 100,000 oysters and 10,000 littleneck clams were served at the 6th annual Wellfleet OysterFest, not to mention lobster rolls, seafood stews and steamed mussels, all washed down with Buzzards Bay Brewing Company beers, the official beer of the 2006 'Fest. [5] Wellfleet residents are grateful that pollution and oil spills have not hurt the oyster beds, and work hard to keep it that way. [5] The local harbor environment. Oysters are flavored by what they feed on. The unique mix of nutrients and local species of phytoplankton that inhabit Wellfleet are different than those even as nearby as Cotuit, Mass., and these variations greatly contribute to the Wellfleets' distinctive flavor. [5] Regular exposure to air on the flats help make Wellfleet oysters very hardy, thus able to withstand shipping and stay fresh for the consumer. [5] Wellfleet oysters tend to be long and strong-shelled. Experienced tasters know that they are plump and clean with a distinctively good balance of creamy sweetness and brine. [5] Cold waters. The average temperatures in Wellfleet's estuaries are colder than those in more southerly waters. Cold water temperatures slow down the oysters' metabolisms, helping them store compounds called glycogens, a process akin to carbo-loading, that make the oysters sweeter tasting. [5]


The staff of Tomales Bay Oyster Company is pleased to welcome you to our website. [39] Use these as a garnish for the Red Snapper with Tomatillo-Serrano Chile Vinaigrette. 1 1/2 cups yellow cornmeal 1/2 cup all-purpose flour 2 eggs, lightly beaten 2 cups milk 1/4 cup melted bacon fat or butter 1 tablespoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 3 cups peanut oil, for deep-frying 36 freshly shucked oysters Lemon wedges, as accompaniment In a medium bowl, combine the cornmeal, flour, eggs, milk, bacon fat, baking powder and salt. [40] Eating oysters from "clean" waters or in reputable restaurants with high product turnover does not provide protection. [41] Oysters flourish in estuaries where nutrient-rich fresh water meets the salt water and feed mainly on single-cell plants. [41] When feeding, the oyster can pump and filter 25 gallons of water in 24 hours. [41] If you are unsure of your risk check with your doctor. The cultivation of oysters began more than 2,000 years ago when Romans collected oyster seed stock near the mouth of the Adriatic Sea and transported them to another part of Italy for grow-out. The Romans had such a passion for oysters that they imported them from all over the Mediterranean and European coasts. [41] When traveling along the Gulf Coast, you may see oysters being harvested commercially from small boats by fishermen using large, long handled tongs to scoop clumps of oysters from the bottom. [41] When dining at restaurants, order oysters fully cooked if you have one of the risk conditions. [41] Eight out of ten affected oysters die from the affliction, which so far has only affected akoya oysters. Even isolating apparently healthy oysters has had no effect: the disease seems to ferret them out. Pearl farmers haul out their oyster cages in Ago Bay. Government and company researchers both within and outside of Japan have struggled to identify a specific pathogenic source. [42] In 1996, the most recent year for which figures are available, 150 million akoya oysters perished, according to Devin Macnow, executive director of the Cultured Pearl Information Center, a trade group in New York City financed by the Japan Pearl Exporters Association. The harvest of akoya pearls such as these raised in Ago Bay has mysteriously plummeted in recent years. [42] For decades, oyster farmers in Ago Bay, Japan, had everything to smile about, but recently the tide has turned. Japan's akoya oysters have been preëminent among cultured pearls ever since Kokichi Mikimoto first established the industry in the early part of this century. [42] Named for the discolored water created by the presence of the minute creatures, red tides are short-lived events. The oyster deaths continued long after the 1994 tide had dissipated; in fact, they increased. [42] Today's equation of high pollution, plus high shell density, just doesn't work out. It takes just a little change in either condition to trigger high mortality in oysters. even in a species as hardy as the akoya." [42] The illness first makes itself known when the abductor muscle, which holds the two parts of the oyster shell together, turns a reddish-brown. [42] "The Japanese have always tended to place too many oysters too close together," wrote Andy Müller in the December 1996/January 1997 issue of Pearl World. "In earlier days (when sea conditions were better), most oysters still had a fair chance to survive in their densely packed state. [42] Ago Bay alone harbors an estimated 130 akoya-oyster farmers. Others feel the oyster farmers themselves might be to blame. [42] Experts attribute the initial oyster deaths in 1994 to "red tide," a bloom of microscopic, toxin-producing animals in the ocean that proved deadly to the oysters. [42] Steaming to open the oyster shells or blanching the shellfish does not always provide enough heat to kill all the Vibrio bacteria. [15]


"I feel good about that; my goal was 15 dozen," Zukowski said. "I had only eaten one raw oyster in my life before this and I thought I'd vomit after it. I hate them." [37] The accumulated effects of the parasitic diseases Dermo and MSX would deal a near deathblow to the native oyster by the early 1980s. [38] Dozens of species of crabs and shellfish live in the Bay's waters, wetlands and shorelines. Some, like oysters and blue crabs, are well-known; others, such as amphipods and isopods, are not quite as familiar to most of us. [43] Some of the better-known inhabitants of the Bay watershed include blue crabs, oysters, striped bass and bald eagles. [43]


AmeriPure's raw oysters are plump, salty, delicious - and safer for everyone to eat. That's because we use an all-natural, patented in-shell process to reduce the naturally occurring, but potentially harmful Vibio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria to nondetectable levels. [17] The diseases have frustrated restoration and aquaculture efforts and brought the Bay oyster fishery to near ruin, especially in Virginia. The loss of oysters and their capacity for filtering algae has also likely contributed to the decline of Bay water quality. [44] Blankenship, K., Agencies, groups offer support, concern for use of foreign oysters Agencies, groups offer support, concern for use of foreign oysters, Bay Journal. [44]

Field studies began with Crassostrea gigas, an imported Japanese species that has long been the mainstay of oyster aquaculture on the U.S. West Coast. [44] Langdon, C. J., and A. M. Robinson, Aquaculture potential of the Suminoe oyster ( Crassostrea ariakensis Fugita 1913): Aquaculture, v. 144, p. 321-338. [44]

In recent decades, over-harvesting, habitat degradation, and the diseases MSX and Dermo MSX and Dermo have devastated the Bay's oyster population. [44]


The implicated oyster beds in the San Antonio Bay were closed by the Texas Department of Health Services on February 24, 2007 and remain closed. [16] Bayview Seafood, a distributor in Seadrift, TX, issued a voluntary recall on February 26, 2007. Another distributor, Rose Bay Oyster Company of Swanquarter, NC, issued a voluntary recall on February 28, 2007. [16] Oysters subject to the recall were mislabeled by the Rose Bay Oyster Company, indicating Galveston Bay as the harvest area; the implicated oysters were actually harvested from San Antonio Bay. [16] The illness typically lasts one to two days. Consumers who ate oyster products served in restaurants after February 1 and experienced symptoms of norovirus are encouraged to contact their healthcare provider and local health department. Consumers concerned about oysters purchased during this period should contact their place of purchase to determine if the oysters are from the affected lot of oysters. [16] Using larger pots, or cooking too many oysters at one time, may cause uneven heat distribution, which may cause the oysters in the middle to not get fully cooked. [16]


Florida's estuaries provide suitable conditions and a plentiful food supply for Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to grow rapidly. They can reach marketable size in less than two years; whereas, it may take oysters up to six years to reach marketable size in colder northern waters. [41] The Wellfleet oyster is an eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica by species, the same kind of oyster that grows in Long Island Sound, as far south as the Chesapeake Bay, and up into Canada's Maritime Provinces in the north. [5] In the beginning of the 1800s, Wellfleet's native oyster population was nearly depleted. Aquaculture, as we know it today, began as Wellfleetians imported young oysters from points south, flavored and fattened them in local estuaries, then harvested them for sale in the lucrative Boston market. Although people may not agree on which oysters are best, they do agree a real difference exists among oysters grown in different locations. [5]


Eating raw oysters with hot sauce or while drinking alcohol does NOT kill the bacteria. The risk of infection is 200 times greater for individuals with liver disease than those without liver disease.) [41] If you are an older adult, you may be at greater risk of having these conditions than a younger person. If you are or think you may be in any of these risk categories, you should not eat raw oysters. [41] If you eat raw oysters you need to be aware that certain health conditions put some people at risk of serious illness or death and these people should not eat raw oysters. [41]

Live oysters should be free of cracks. They will remain alive for up to seven days in the refrigerator when stored at a constant 41 degrees F in a container with the lid slightly open. [41] Live oysters should close tightly when tapped. Discard any oysters that don't close; this is an indication that the shellfish are dead. They should have a mild odor, similar to the ocean. [41]


Six oyster companies operate in and around Tomales Bay, and three are open to the public for tours and tasting. Oysters do well (and taste best) in a very clean environment, and Tomales Bay, one of the most pristine bodies of water on the West Coast, produces excellent oysters - and has for centuries; the indigenous Coast Miwok were eating them thousands of years ago. [11] The barbecued oysters are the best in Tomales Bay, and you'll be happy eating the thick sandwiches and herby clam chowder on the decks over the water. [11] Lunny, who also raises beef cattle on the Point Reyes peninsula, is a big believer in the virtue of oysters. "We can produce 10 times the amount of protein per acre in the bay than we can on land," he says. He also points out that oysters, which feed on water-clouding phytoplankton, cleanse any body of water they're in. "It's fun to be producing food that in every way is positive for the environment." [11] The oysters tend to be on the plump side, especially in spring, when, Lunny explains, "they grow like crazy because the sun makes the plankton boom." With its restaurant in San Francisco's Ferry Plaza building, Hog Island is probably the best-known oyster company on the bay and has just released a well-written cookbook: The Hog Island Oyster Lover's Cookbook: A Guide to Choosing & Savoring Oysters (Ten Speed Press, 2007; 20) by Jairemarie Pomo. [11] The oysters: Hog Island mainly raises and sells three species: Pacifics (called Sweetwaters here) have beautifully pleated shells, like tiny ruffled skirts. Their brininess is offset by a cucumber-melon finish. [11] "When the tides are out, you can see our oyster beds," says current proprietor Drew Alden. He explains that his company grows only Pacifics, raising them both single-shell (laid out individually on racks to form pretty, sturdy oysters suitable for serving on the half-shell) and cluster-style (in clumps; cheaper to produce, but the imperfect shells mean the oysters must be sold shucked). [11] The Atlantic ( Crassostrea virginica, also known as an Eastern) is an East Coast oyster, with a flat, greenish shell and a sweet, delicate mineraliness. Kumamotos ( Crassostrea sikamea ) are tiny, about the size of a quarter, with thick, deeply cupped shells that hold creamy, briny-sweet meat (one Hog Island staffer describes them as "little nuggets of joy"). [11] The fascinating tour takes you from tanks of oyster seed to an example of the growing racks, where tidal rises and drops help the mollusks develop thick, strong shells. [11]

Tony's Seafood A snug, comfortable room of knotty pine set over the water, with gigantic barbecued oysters, steamed clams, and fresh fish from the restaurant's own boat. [11] The oysters: Five different sizes of Pacifics, from extra-small to jumbo, with a clean, fresh, briny taste overlaid with the sweetness of freshwater. [11] Named after a small local island - where, according to lore, a barge once accidentally released a load of pigs - the company was founded in 1984 by two marine biologists, Mike Watchorn and John Finger. On a tour sponsored through Marin Agricultural Land Trust (MALT; see " What to Do: Farm and Ranch Tours "), you can see their floating oyster beds and learn about oyster-growing techniques (like gently tumbling the oysters to even out their growth and harden their shelves). [11] Oysters Slurp great oysters with gusto at Drakes Bay Family Farms (415/669-1149), Hog Island Oyster Co. (415/663-9218), The Marshall Store The Marshall Store, and Tomales Bay Oyster Company (415/663-1242). [11] All three are grown near the mouth of a creek. That sweet freshwater, combined with the nutrients in the seawater, helps create the complex, subtle flavors that Hog Island oysters are known for. The oldest continuously run shellfish farm in the state, it's been in operation since 1909 with just two owners;. [11] In 2004, owner Kevin Lunny took over the oyster farm, deep in the Point Reyes National Seashore, from the Johnson family, who had operated it for 50 years. [11] INFO: Farm shop open 95 daily (oysters 1015per dozen); shucking lessons 8 SatSun, 5 MonFri (fee includes shucking tool), reservations required a week in advance; reservations also required for picnic area (415/663-9218, ext. 255); 20215 Coast Hwy. [11] Next to the sales area, Hog Island offers a pretty waterside picnic spot - where the prow of a graceful old boat juts up from the sand - with reservable wooden tables and grills to barbecue your freshly purchased oysters. [11] Twenty minutes later, we're sitting at a picnic table at Hog Island Oyster Co., shucking and slurping cold, firm, plump Pacifics harvested a few hundred feet away. [11] INFO: Shop open 86 daily (oysters roughly 10 per dozen); free tours, reservations required; 15479 State 1, Marshall; 415/663-1242. [11] INFO: Shop open 84:30 daily (oysters roughly 10 per dozen); tour free, reservations required; 17171 Sir Francis Drake Blvd., Inverness; 415/669-1149. [11]


Oyster seed can be reared in hatcheries or collected from the wild, and then grown in natural intertidal or subtidal waters. Because they are filter feeders, oyster aquaculture facilities generally improve coastal water conditions by converting nutrients and organic matter to biomass. [20] In some cases, oysters have been introduced to non-native areas. This practice can also introduce diseases, and concerns are growing about the impacts of genetically altered oysters being raised in the wild. [20] Consumer Note Farmed oysters are available year-round and can be served raw (shucked or unshucked), smoked and canned, or frozen. [20]


Consumers in high risk categories should avoid consumption of raw shellfish, particularly oysters. Oysters are filter feeding animals that can concentrate Vibrio bacteria from the water into their system. This concern exists for any raw oysters regardless of harvest from approved or questionable waters. 3. When eating shellfish, particularly oysters, be sure that they are properly and thoroughly cooked. [15] Volunteers stuffed straw into the mesh bags to feed the amphipods, which control other micro-organisms that compete with the growing oysters for food and block water flow. Five bags holding an estimated 1,000 oysters in all were secured to piping and placed in water near the shore of St. Thomas Creek, where they will float for two years, each oyster filtering 50 to 55 gallons of the creek's water per day. [45] The oysters grow faster while living nearer the water's surface. "It takes three years to on the bottom. We are effectively cutting that in half," said Bob Parkinson, owner of St. Thomas Creek Oysters, whose permits allow for the Coastal Conservation Association Maryland's floating oyster reef on his property. [45] Circle C Oyster Ranchers Association sells three floats with oysters for $500. Waterfront homeowners can attach the floats to their docks and harvest them for themselves or pass them to McGuire's group to add to the sanctuary, he said. "Certainly the goal is to get as many of these at the docks as possible," he said. "It gives people a reason to care," which translates from the water into their actions on land. [45] Conservation-minded fishermen have teamed with oyster ranchers in St. Mary's County for a project they say will help clean the waters of the Chesapeake Bay. [45] Richard Pelz, founder, president and chief executive of Circle C Oyster Ranchers Association, a commercial oyster growing and harvesting business, designed the floating oyster reefs. [45] "We really haven't given our natural oyster population a fair shake," said Scott McGuire, president of the Patuxent River Chapter of Coastal Conservation Association Maryland. [45] Conservationists and oyster ranchers are building oyster bars on St. Thomas Creek. [45] We found plenty of restaurants advertising tempting prices per dozen. These oysters generally are of the local and Gulf variety; specialty oysters, or those flown in from other locales, cost more. There are no better or best kinds; it's a matter of personal choice. [12] A block or so away near the Customs House, the large Fleet Landing Restaurant offers indoor and outdoor dining in a former 1940s naval building on the Cooper River. The eatery serves its fried oysters with Southern Comfort barbecue sauce; or go for the chilled kind on the half-shell. [12] The restaurant serves local and Florida oysters throughout the week and flies in specialty oysters for weekend menus. [12]

Our oyster exploration centered on the downtown market area, a lively source of food, entertainment and socializing since the late 18th century. [12] The Pavilion Bar is a pearl of a place, even though it doesn't serve oysters. [12] The Apalachicola oysters from the Florida Panhandle were good, but we weren't crazy about the butter crackers (we vote for plain ol' saltines) or the soundtrack. ("Get Down Tonight"? No, thanks.) [12] Since our visit was in an "R" month (February), we set out to sample as many oysters as we could in a couple of days. [12]


Steamer - add oysters to water that is already steaming and cook live oysters until the shells open; once open steam for another 4-9 minutes. [16] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating an outbreak of norovirus-associated illness linked to eating raw oysters harvested from San Antonio Bay, TX. FDA advises consumers to avoid eating raw oysters harvested from this area after February 1, 2007, as a result of reports of illnesses in people who attended a Maryland event where these oysters were served. [16]


Blankenship, K., Expanded use of non-native oyster seems likely in Bay Expanded use of non-native oyster seems likely in Bay, Bay Journal. Blankenship, K., Oyster shell game: Once you saw them everywhere, now you donít Oyster shell game: Once you saw them everywhere, now you donít, Bay Journal. [44] Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Position Statement on the Use of Non-native Oysters in Chesapeake Bay Position Statement on the Use of Non-native Oysters in Chesapeake Bay, Annapolis, MD, CBR, 3 pp. [44] Malmquist, D. L., VIMS urges caution in commercial release of non-native oysters to Chesapeake Bay VIMS urges caution in commercial release of non-native oysters to Chesapeake Bay, The Crest, p. 6. [44] VIMS research VIMS research showed that C. gigas in Chesapeake Bay exhibited unremarkable growth, disease tolerance, and taste compared to the native oyster. [44] Comparisons between infertile C. ariakensis and the native oyster showed that C. ariakensis was faster growing, better tolerated MSX and Dermo, and tasted just as good. These findings suggest that hatchery-reared C. ariakensis hold promise for rebuilding the commercial oyster industry in Virginia and Maryland through aquaculture. [44]

The Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica was for three centuries the object of a major fishery in Chesapeake Bay. [44] Ximing, G., G. A. DeBrosse, and S. K. Allen, Jr., All-triploid Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) produced by mating tetraploids and diploids All-triploid Pacific oysters opnbrktCrassostrea gigas Thunbergclsbrkt produced by mating tetraploids and diploids : Aquaculture, v. 142, p. 149-161. [44]

The oysters: Firm, meaty, clean-tasting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), harvested and shucked daily. These fast-growing oysters are the dominant species on the West Coast. At Drakes, you can buy them whole, for shucking yourself; shucked and packed in a jar; or on the half-shell, to slurp down at the outside table with some horseradish, a squeeze of lemon, or cocktail sauce. [11]

More than a century of decline in abundance of the native eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the Chesapeake Bay has led to the collapse of a formerly productive fishery and the loss of significant ecological benefits. This page provides a more information about the proposal to introduce the Asian oyster into Chesapeake Bay and the reasons behind the decline of the native oyster. [46] However even the possibility that it might has scientists and policy makers cautious about going ahead with an introduction. This page contains policy and position statements on the issue of the introduction of a non-native oyster into the Chesapeake Bay from NOAA, as well as other agencies and organizations in the Bay watershed. [46] Links to all of the Non-native Oyster Quarterly Review reports are located at the bottom of the page. [46]


McGuire said widespread introduction of non-native oysters to the bay and its tributaries would be "criminal." After the Calvert County oysters grow to full size in two years, they will be placed in a sanctuary at the mouth of the Patuxent River. [45]

We opted for a booth, where it was a little hard to hear over the lively chatter and the Clemson-Florida State basketball game on TV. Though Southern oysters were on the menu, we opted for a sampler of Canada Cups, bluepoints and Montauk oysters, which came with cocktail and mignonette sauces. [12]


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39. Tomales Bay Oyster Co
http://www.tomalesbayoysters.com/

40. Corn Bread Fried Oysters
http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~mjw/recipes/seafood/cornbread-fried-oysters.html

41. Oysters: Florida Seafood and Aquaculture
http://www.fl-seafood.com/species/oyster.htm

42. NOVA Online | The Perfect Pearl | What's Killing the Oysters?
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pearl/oysters.html

43. Animals & Plants - About the Bay - Chesapeake Bay Program
http://www.chesapeakebay.net/baybio.htm

44. C. ariakensis
http://www.vims.edu/abc/CA.html

45. Putting Oysters Back in the Bay - washingtonpost.com
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/18/AR2008031803925.html

46. Non-native Oysters
http://noaa.chesapeakebay.net/nonnativeoysters.aspx

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