Kelp

GENERAL INFO

Kelp is a general term for large brown algae of the order Laminariales (Figure 3). They live predominantly just below low-tide mark and form dense beds reminiscent of underwater forests. They absorb. [2]
Kelp is a source of vitamins A A, B1, B2, C C, D D and E E, plus amino acids. [4]
Randy Seton wrote on Aug 18, 2007 8:47 AM: " What a great ongoing project! We need to teach the sportfishing industry about these kelp projects and how kelp is a huge benefit to coastal fishing. [6]
Commercially, kelp is a very useful product. It can produce Algin, which is an emulsifier, that is used in mover 300 different products. It is used for vitamins, acetone, iodine, paints, toothpaste, dental impression compound, ice cream, canned food, cosmetics, shampoo, and many processed foods. [8]
A bull kelp plant has only one pneumatocyst that supports several blades near the water's surface. Life histories: Giant kelp is a perennial (i.e. it lives for several years) while bull kelp is an annual (i.e. it completes its life cycle in one year). Both types of kelp have a two-stage life cycle. They exist in their earliest life stages as spores, released with millions of others from the parent kelp, the sporophyte. [11]
Notes From the Kelp is a collection of eight of Alex's representative works. Scroll down this page to read about each of the pieces on the new disc and hear excerpts. Visit other pages of this website, linked above and below, to learn more about Alex's life and music. [12]
Alex's music has been featured on many CDs many CDs from Europe and the U.S., and Notes From the Kelp is the first disc comprised entirely of her works. The CD features 24 fabulous musicians who brought this music to life, each listed here here. [12]
The fronds extend from the float. This makes for a very unstable arrangement and strong storms often uproot the plant. This kelp is an annual, so more low-lying perennial seaweeds can take over simply by outshading Nereocystis when the sporelings begin to grow from the bottom. [13]
Kelp is a giant, yellow-brown, rubbery seaweed stretching from the sea floor to the surface. [14]
Giant kelp is one of the world's fastest growing plants. It can grow as much as 300 feet in a single year. When the tops reach the surface, they keep on growing to form a floating mat. [7]
Growing as much as 2 feet a day, giant kelp is one of the fastest growing plants in the world. [9]
By winter, the kelp are dying. Storms and waves leave them on the beach, where they appear as brown "bull whips." [1]
Kelp are large seaweeds ( algae ), belonging to the brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales. Despite their appearance by some they are not grouped with the normal aquatic or land plants ( kingdom Plantae ), but instead are included in either kingdom Protista or Chromista. [10]
The decomposing kelp provides food and beach shelter for scavenging amphipods and other animals. [1]
Frequently considered an ecosystem engineer, kelp provides the physical substrate and habitat about which kelp forest communities are built. [3]
KeLP provides run time support for general blocked data decompositions and the management of the underlying irregular communication. [5]
KeLP provides an easily understood model of locality that ensures that applications achieve portable performance across a diverse range of platforms including IBM SP2, Cray T3E, SGI-Cray Origin 200, and clusters of workstations running AIX, Solaris, and Linux. [5]

KEY TOPICS

Section Contents:

* Until the Leblanc process was commercialized in the early 1800s, burning of kelp in Scotland was one of the principal industrial sources of soda ash (predominantly sodium carbonate ).(More…)

* The word forest is very appropriate for eastern and northern Pacific kelp habitats.(More…)

* Botanically it is classified as algae.(More…)

* Stands of giant kelp along our coast form the most extensive underwater forest in the world.(More…)

* Kelps are types of brown algae, which hold on to the rocky bottom with root-like structures called holdfasts.(More…)

* Kelps are primarily associated with temperate and arctic waters worldwide.(More…)

* Find out about price specials, conferences we attend, and newly posted items, by going to What's New; Learn about kelp by accessing research and educational documents; Link to other web sites recommended by us; And.(More…)

* From the sheltering canopy to the haven of the holdfast, the kelp forest nourishes and protects animals of all kinds.(More…)

* The KeLP distribution includes example application libraries which may be used as templates for deriving new ones.(More…)

Until the Leblanc process was commercialized in the early 1800s, burning of kelp in Scotland was one of the principal industrial sources of soda ash (predominantly sodium carbonate ). Alginate, a kelp-derived carbohydrate, is used to thicken products such as ice cream, jelly, salad dressing, and toothpaste, as well as an ingredient in exotic dog food and in manufactured goods. Giant kelp can be harvested fairly easily because of its surface canopy and growth habit of staying in deeper water. [10] The holdfast, a root-like structure, anchors the kelp to the substrate of the ocean. Gas-filled bladders ( pneumatocysts ) form at the base of blades of American species, such as Nereocystis lueteana (Mert.& Post & Rupr.) and keep the kelp blades close to the surface. [10] Through the 19th Century, the word "kelp" was closely associated with seaweeds that could be burned to obtain soda ash (primarily sodium carbonate). The seaweeds used included species from both the orders Laminariales and Fucales. The word "kelp" was also used directly to refer to these processed ashes. [10] Kelp is also used frequently in seaweed fertiliser, especially in the Channel Islands, where it is known as vraic. [10] Kelp are large seaweeds ( algae ), belonging to the brown algae and classified in the order Laminariales. Despite their appearance by some they are not grouped with the normal aquatic or land plants ( kingdom Plantae ), but instead are included in either kingdom Protista or Chromista. [10]

Kombu ( Laminaria japonica and others), several Pacific species of kelp, is a very important ingredient in Japanese cuisine. [10] Kombu, Laminaria japonica and others, several edible species of kelp found in Japan. [10]

Transparent sheets of kelp ( oboro konbu ) are used as an edible decorative wrapping for rice and other foods. [10] The economic collapse of the kelp industry in northern Scotland led to further emigration, especially to North America. Natives of the Falkland Islands are sometimes nicknamed " Kelpers " but this is not used much by themselves. [10] The kelp life cycle involves a diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stage. [10] In most kelp, the thallus (or body) consists of flat or leaf-like structures known as blades. [10] Some animals are named after the kelp, either because they inhabit the same habitat as kelp or because they feed on kelp. [10]


The word forest is very appropriate for eastern and northern Pacific kelp habitats. [13] In the Pacific northwest, subtidal kelps are dominated by Agarum fimbriatum, a leafy laminaria-like plant. Their dominance may relate to their high concentrations of secondary compounds that defend them from urchin grazing. [13] When kelps are lush, many urchins keep to crevices and capture drift algae on oral tube feet. [13] Dense urchin populations graze kelps efficiently and leave a low-lying turf, dominated by red algae. [13] Urchin behavior is connected to kelp community structure by a fascinating feedback loop. Food abundance affects urchin feeding behavior and feeding behavior, in turn may determine the pattern of kelp recruitment. [13] Locally abundant starfish predation is sufficiently intense to eliminate urchins and to allow patches of kelp to grow. [13] The fronds extend from the float. This makes for a very unstable arrangement and strong storms often uproot the plant. This kelp is an annual, so more low-lying perennial seaweeds can take over simply by outshading Nereocystis when the sporelings begin to grow from the bottom. [13] The reason for benthic abundance may also relate to the concentrated settlement of planktonic larvae beneath kelps, where water flow is relatively more sluggish than in more exposed hard bottoms. Recent research by Duggins and colleagues demonstrates that suspension feeders such as mussels and serpulid polychaetes grow well when fed particles of kelp. [13]

In many cases, a surface canopy is present. Kelps such as Macrocystis and Nereocystis have floats that keep fronds at the water surface. [13] This kelp as, mentioned above, often dominates subtidal hard surfaces because of its high polyphenolic content, which deters urchin grazing. [13] By feeding upon sea urchins, otters reduce the intensity of grazing and allow kelps to develop dense populations. Sea otters bring urchins, abalones, and other benthic animals to the surface and often smash them on their chests with the aid of a rock. [13]

The kelps have in common a capacity for some of the most remarkable growth rates in the plant kingdom. [13] Below we see a barrens, which occurs when urchins are more abundant and kelps are grazed down. [13] When kelps are rare, some urchins adopt a "roving" habit, which ensures that kelp recruitment is poor. [13] Kelps may not recolon- ize until urchins have died off, owing to disease or a strong storm. [13] We start with a dense population of urchins (top), which keep the kelp from recruitment. [13]

The intense red at top indicates rocky benches covered by the seaweed Hedophyllum, whereas the wispy red towards the bottom represents subtidal kelps. [13] This Alaskan kelp forest site is dominated by Laminaria groenlandica (foreground). If urchins are relatively sparse and disturbance infrequent, this species tends to take over. It is a perennial, and shades out other species, including the annual Nereocystis luetkeana, which can grow to the surface, if it can get a start from the bottom. When Laminaria is sparse this is possible, but when it is very dense, thalli shade out newly established sporelings of Nereocystis. [13] Like Nereocystis it can grow several cm a day and extends many meters from the bottom towards the surface. Because of this life style, M. pyrifera forests greatly alter the local hydrodynamic regime, greatly slowing currents. This combined with resident planktiv- orous species turn such kelp forests into filters, greatly reducing barnacle larval recruitment on adjacent rocky shores. Such kelps are often uprooted during strong storms. [13]

Kelp forests are rich in animal species, as shown by this colorful and rich bottom of epibenthic invertebrates. [13] Kelp forests on the east coast of North America have fewer species but often are quite lush, and support rich commu- nities of benthic invert- ebrates. They range southward to Cape Cod and occur only sporadically southward to the eastern tip of Long Island, New York. [13] Kelp forests in the eastern and northern Pacific commonly have complex three- dimensional structure, with many coexisting species. [13] This lovely photograph shows the three common urchins found in eastern Pacific kelp forests. [13] Kelp forests occur in cold, nutrient-rich water and are among the most beautiful and biologically productive habitats in the marine environment. They are found throughout the world in shallow open coastal waters, and the larger forests are restricted to temperatures less than 20ºC, extending to both the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. A dependence upon light for photosynthesis restricts them to clear shallow water and they are rarely much deeper than 15-40m. [13] In Californian kelp forests in open water, Macrocystis pyrifera often dominates. [13]

Kelp forests are very productive and support areas of high plant biomass. This is an infrared-sensitive air photograph, taken with a view towards the shoreline; chlorophyll is visualized as a "false color" red. [13] Starfish, Solaster Sp. Asteroid starfish are abundant in kelp forests and are important predators on benthic invertebrates such as urchin. [13] Urchins are important grazers and may reach densities sufficient to eliminate the kelp forest. [13]

Nereocystis luetkeana often dominates northeastern Pacific kelp forests. It has a long stipe that is attached often to a small rock and is kept aloft by a gas-filled float. [13] David Duggins and colleagues have found that the large number of suspension feeders found on kelp forest bottoms can be associated with kelp detritus, by means of similarities in abundances of a number of stable isotopes. [13]


Botanically it is classified as algae. It is a rich source of natural vitamins and minerals, including essential trace minerals. Kelp is dependent upon the sea for its nourishment — an excellent source since the sea is the repository of all the minerals that have been washed from the land through the millennia. [4] Kelp ( Glandular Glandular ), commonly referred to as seaweed, grows along coastlines around the world. [4] Take two Nature's Sunshine capsules twice a day with meals. Due to its high iodine content, Kelp should be used sparingly if a thyroid condition exists and consult your health care professional. [4]


Stands of giant kelp along our coast form the most extensive underwater forest in the world. [15]

Overfishing nearshore ecosystems leads to the degradation of kelp forests. Herbivores are released from their usual population regulation, leading to over-grazing of kelp and other algae. This can quickly result in barren landscapes, ones in which a small amount of species can thrive. [10] Northern kelp crab ( Pugettia producta ) and graceful kelp crab ( Pugettia gracilis ), Pacific coast of North America. [10]


Kelps are types of brown algae, which hold on to the rocky bottom with root-like structures called holdfasts. From these holdfasts, long streamers of kelp grow up toward the surface, with gas bladders at each leaf to keep the plant upright, such as on the Giant Perennial Kelp. [16] Bull Kelp has a hollow stem and a single large gas bladder near the water's surface from which streamers grow. [16]


Kelps are primarily associated with temperate and arctic waters worldwide. Of the more dominant species, Laminaria is mainly associated with both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and the coasts of China and Japan ; Ecklonia is found in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa ; and Macrocystis occurs throughout the northeastern and southeastern Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean archipelagos, and in patches around Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. [3] In ideal conditions, giant kelp ( Macrocystis spp. ) can grow as much as 30-60 centimeters vertically per day. Some species such as Nereocystis are annual while others like Eisenia are perennial, living for more than 20 years. [3]

Multiple kelp species often co-exist within a forest; the term understory canopy refers to the stipitate and prostrate kelps. [3] In southern Australia, manipulations of kelp canopy types demonstrated that the relative amount of Ecklonia radiata in a canopy could be used to predict understory species assemblages; consequently, the proportion of E. radiata can be used as an indicator of other species occurring in the environment. [3] Many kelp species have pneumatocysts, or gas-filled bladders, usually located at the base of fronds near the stipe. These structures provide the necessary buoyancy for kelp to maintain an upright position in the water column. [3] Though not considered a taxonomically diverse order, kelps are highly diverse structurally and functionally. The most widely recognized species are the giant kelps ( Macrocystis spp. ), although there are numerous other genera such as Laminaria, Ecklonia, Lessonia, Alaria and Eisenia. [3] Farming of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern Chile for development of novel food products. [3] Nutrients and production of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, off southern California. [3] Effect of boundary layer transport on the fixation of carbon by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. [3] When there is sufficient drift kelp, herbivorous grazers do not exert pressure on attached plants; when drift subsidies are unavailable, grazers directly impact the physical structure of the ecosystem. [3] Long term variability in the structure of kelp communities in northern Chile and the 1997-98 ENSO. Journal of Applied Phycology 18: 505-519. [3]

Stress due to warm water and nutrient depletion can increase the susceptibility of kelp to storm damage and herbivorous grazing, sometimes even prompting phase shifts to urchin-dominated landscapes. [3] Water flow and turbulence facilitate nutrient assimilation across kelp fronds throughout the water column. [3]

Deep-water kelp refugia as potential hotspots of tropical marine diversity and productivity. [3] Many studies in Southern California have demonstrated that the availability of drift kelp specifically influences the foraging behavior of sea urchins. Drift kelp and kelp-derived particulate matter have also been important in subsidizing adjacent habitats, such as sandy beaches and the rocky intertidal. [3]


Find out about price specials, conferences we attend, and newly posted items, by going to What's New; Learn about kelp by accessing research and educational documents; Link to other web sites recommended by us; And. [17] North American Kelp has been in the business of producing quality kelp products for the agricultural and horticultural industries for 28 years. [17]


From the sheltering canopy to the haven of the holdfast, the kelp forest nourishes and protects animals of all kinds. As you watch the swaying giants, explore the majesty of their sheltering grove. [15] Kelp forests are home to many different kinds of rockfish, which often hang upside down and motionless near the giant kelp. [15]


The KeLP distribution includes example application libraries which may be used as templates for deriving new ones. [5]

KeLP is currently used in full-scale applications including subsurface modeling, turbulence studies, and first principles simulation of real materials. [5] KeLP provides an easily understood model of locality that ensures that applications achieve portable performance across a diverse range of platforms including IBM SP2, Cray T3E, SGI-Cray Origin 200, and clusters of workstations running AIX, Solaris, and Linux. [5] KeLP applications may be written in a dimension-independent form which can facilitate development of 3D applications that have a simpler analog in 2D. The programmer may develop the parallelization logic in two dimensions, without having to incur the delays of running a full-scale 3D computation on a mainframe. [5] The KeLP programmer expresses and optimizes data motion and decomposition using high-level geometric set operations and may specify elaborate interpolation or coupling functions to handle complicated boundary conditions arising in multidisciplinary applications. [5] The KeLP programmer may customize load balancing activity to the application, and treat interprocessor communication at a very high level. [5] Writing your application with KeLP. If you think that KeLP could help you build your parallel structured application, please let us know. [5] KeLP supports a task parallel model which isolates parallel coordination activities from numerical computation. This simplifies the design of application software and promotes software re-use. [5] KeLP is useful in multi-resolution applications, including the multi-level adaptive method shown here. It facilitates performance tuning in uniform methods, too, i.e. to evaluate optimal processor geometries at run time. [5] KeLP (Kernel Lattice Parallelism) is a framework for implementing portable scientific applications on distributed memory parallel computers. It is intended for applications with special needs, in particular, that adapt to data-dependent or hardware dependent conditions at run time. [5]

KeLP is simple and intuitive, and has a quick learning curve. It defines only 7 new data types plus a small number of primitives to manipulate them. [5] KeLP provides run time support for general blocked data decompositions and the management of the underlying irregular communication. [5] KeLP encapsulates communication activity using a model known as communication orchestration. Under this model, all communication is expressed in terms of atomic array section moves. [5]


IN-DEPTH

Section Contents:

* Kelp is a source of vitamins A A, B1, B2, C C, D D and E E, plus amino acids.(More…)

* Kelp forests grow along rocky coastlines in depths of 18 to 90 feet (6 to 30 meters).(More…)

* Last is shown kelp encrusting bryozoan ( Membranipora membranacea ) on giant kelp blade, San Clemente Island, California, 1.5 inches.(More…)

* Sardines, leopard sharks and a host of other fishes weave among the fronds of kelp, which grow up to four inches a day.(More…)

* The recovery of kelp forests from barren states has been documented following dramatic perturbations, such as urchin disease or large shifts in thermal conditions.(More…)

* Giant kelps, of the genus Macrocystis, are rich in minerals and produce algin algin, a complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) useful in various industrial processes, including tire manufacture.(More…)

* In a dense kelp forest, the rocky reef can hardly be seen beneath the many kelp plants (middle).(More…)

* The sea water we pump into our Kelp Forest contains plankton and young animals, like clams and mussels, that settle and grow inside our pipes and eventually clog them.(More…)

* On the rocky cold-water coasts of North and South America, for example, are found vast forestlike kelp beds made up of brown algae of the genus Laminaria, with individual plants often reaching heights of 100 feet (30 metres) or more.(More…)

* Native Americans had many uses for kelp, including medicine, food, salt, and fishing gear.(More…)

* Fifteen graduate students used the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) Virtual Reality Modeling Language opnbrktVRMLclsbrkt, physically based modeling and analytic simulation techniques to model the three-dimensional (3D) shape and motion of plants and animals in the kelp forest exhibit kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Monterey Bay Aquarium.(More…)

* Giant kelp is one of the world's fastest growing plants.(More…)

* Coming out of the garage above Rincon Point in April, 1996, Kelp has played up and down the California Coast.(More…)

* The kelp plant is "anchored" to the seafloor by a root-like structure called a holdfast.(More…)

* The kelp forest is a forest, but it is not a forest of trees.(More…)

* Kelp forests soften the force of waves against the shoreline.(More…)

* Overight buy prices tk buy required buy algae and kelp detox lortab 500 bilious.(More…)

* SeaCrop Soluble Kelp Powder 1-3-14 (NPK) Re-hydrating 10 ounces of soluble powder with 1 gallon of water makes a liquid kelp extract that provides natural based plant hormones and micronutrients.(More…)

* Kelp recruits most successfully in regions of upwelling (regions where the ocean layers overturn, bringing cool, nutrient-rich bottom waters to the surface) and regions with continuously cold, high-nutrient waters.(More…)

* Do you have kelp in your house?(More…)

* Pictured above is a kelp bed located near Monterey, California.(More…)

* Saltwater Farms Retail Products Liquid kelp plant food and liquid kelp and fish fertilizer available in pints and gallons.(More…)

* Reaching upwards from the rocky floor, the giant kelp canopy shadows the wondrous forest below.(More…)

* Macrocystis pyrifera, or giant kelp, forms huge beds along the western coast of North America.(More…)

* Caruso goes to Orange County schools to talk to kids about kelp, and the kids then grow tiny kelp plants that divers later transplant to the ocean.(More…)

* Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed that grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the North and Baltic seas.(More…)

* Giant kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ), a brown alga, is the Redwood of the ocean.(More…)

* The other type, the Laminaria species, is used in our Laminaria Kelp supplements.(More…)

* In the cool, coastal waters of California there are submerged forests of a marine algae known as kelp.(More…)

* Like plants and many protists, brown algae undergo a complex life cycle involving alternation of generations alternation of generations.(More…)

* From the canopy, where the tangled plants can be seen lying along the water's surface, to the bottom as much as 130 feet below, the kelp forest is home to a surprising variety of creatures.(More…)

* Our kelp is harvested from an isolated sound off Vancouver Island, for the highest quality supplements on the market today.(More…)

* Scientists map the kelp from planes to track whether particular forests are growing or shrinking.(More…)

Kelp is a source of vitamins A A, B1, B2, C C, D D and E E, plus amino acids. [4] When sea otters are removed from the ecosystem (for example, by human exploitation), urchin populations are released from predatory control and grow dramatically. This leads to increased herbivore pressure on local kelp stands. Deterioration of the kelp itself results in the loss of physical ecosystem structure and subsequently, the loss of other species associated with this habitat. In Alaskan kelp forest ecosystems, sea otters are the keystone species that mediates this trophic cascade. [3] In Southern California, kelp forests persist without sea otters and the control of herbivorous urchins is instead mediated by a suite of predators including lobsters and large fishes. The effect of removing one predatory species in this system differs from Alaska because there is redundancy in the trophic levels and other predatory species can continue to regulate urchins. [3] Direct benefits of MPAs to fisheries (for example, spillover effects) have been well-documented around the world. Indirect benefits have also been shown for several cases among species such as abalone and fishes in Central California. Most importantly, studies have demonstrated that MPAs can be effective at protecting existing kelp forest ecosystems and may also allow for the regeneration of those which have been impacted. Seaweeds: their productivity and strategy for growth. [3] In many places, managers have opted to regulate the harvest of kelp and/or the taking of kelp forest species by fisheries. While these may be effective in one sense, they do not necessarily protect the entirety of the ecosystem. Marine protected areas (MPAs) offer a unique solution that encompasses not only target species for harvesting but also the interactions surrounding them and the local environment as a whole. [3] The architecture of a kelp forest ecosystem is based on its physical structure, which influences the associated species that define its community structure. [3] Although kelp forests are unknown in tropical surface waters, a few species of Laminaria have been known to occur exclusively in tropical deep waters. This general absence of kelp from the tropics is believed to be mostly due to insufficient nutrient levels associated with warm, oligotrophic waters. [3] In general, oceanographic conditions (that is, water temperature, currents) influence the recruitment success of kelp and its competitors, which clearly affect subsequent species interactions and kelp forest dynamics. [3] Interspersed canopy clearings create a seascape mosaic where sunlight penetrates deeper into the kelp forest and species that are normally light-limited in the understory can flourish. Substrate cleared of kelp holdfasts can provide space for other sessile species to establish themselves and occupy the seafloor, sometimes directly competing with juvenile kelp plants and even inhibiting their settlement. [3] Physically formed by brown macroalgae of the order Laminariales, kelp forests provide a unique three-dimensional habitat for marine organisms and are a source for understanding many ecological processes. Over the last century, they have been the focus of extensive research, particularly in trophic ecology, and continue to provoke important ideas that are relevant beyond this unique ecosystem. [3] Occurring worldwide throughout temperate and polar coastal oceans, kelp forests are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on Earth. (In 2007, kelp forests were also discovered in tropical waters near Ecuador.) [3] Effects of local deforestation on the diversity and structure of Southern California giant kelp forest food webs. [3] Severe storm disturbances and reversal of community structure in a southern California kelp forest. [3] Large-scale environmental disturbances have offered important insights concerning mechanisms and ecosystem resilience. Acute and chronic pollution events have been shown to impact southern California kelp forests, though the intensity of the impact seems to depend on both the nature of the contaminants and duration of exposure. [3] Frequently considered an ecosystem engineer, kelp provides the physical substrate and habitat about which kelp forest communities are built. [3] Kelp forests can influence coastal oceanographic patterns and provide many ecosystem services to humankind. [3] The relative importance of top-down versus bottom-up control in kelp forest ecosystems and the strengths of trophic interactions continue to be the subject of considerable scientific investigation. [3]


Kelp forests grow along rocky coastlines in depths of 18 to 90 feet (6 to 30 meters). [16] In seaweed-based systems seaweeds vary in size from giant kelps 40 metres (130 feet) or more in length, through the common rockweeds that are 1 or 2 metres long, to species that are so small as to be barely visible. They are algae and differ from flowering plants in having a holdfast instead of roots, a stipe instead of a stem, and a blade or thallus instead of leaves (see algae). They depend. [2] Among the kelps are the largest algae; certain species of Macrocystis and Nereocystis of the Pacific and Antarctic regions exceed 33 metres (100 feet) in length. Laminaria, another kelp, is abundant along both Pacific and Atlantic coasts. [2] Macrocystis, the largest known kelp, up to 65 metres (215 feet) long, is limited in distribution because it reproduces only at temperatures below 18-20 °C. The complicated plant body, in some ways similar in appearance to that of higher plants, has a large rootlike holdfast for attachment to the ocean floor, a stemlike stipe for the internal transport of organic material, and. [2] Aspects of this topic are discussed in the following places at Britannica. The fastest-growing plantadding as much as 1 metre per day to its lengthis the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is found on subtidal rocky reefs. These plants, which may exceed 30 metres in length, characterize benthic habitats on many temperate reefs. [2] Brown algae vary in form and size from small filamentous epiphytes ( Ectocarpus ) to complex giant kelps that range in size from 1 metre to more than 100 metres (3.3 to 330 feet; Laminaria, Macrocystis, Nerocystis ). [2] Kelp is a general term for large brown algae of the order Laminariales (Figure 3). They live predominantly just below low-tide mark and form dense beds reminiscent of underwater forests. They absorb. [2]

Giant kelp is harvested by cutting to a maximum depth of 1.2 metres below the surface of the water and is transferred by conveyor belt into the open hold of the vessel. [2] Nereocystis Nereocystis, an annual kelp that grows primarily in deep waters and rapid tideways, can attain lengths up to 40 metres (130 feet). [2] Brown algae, sometimes called kelp, may grow to exceptional sizes; some specimens attain a length of 50 metres or more. [2]

In the sporophytes of kelp, one of the largest and most complex of the algae, cell division often is restricted to areas comparable to the growing tips of vascular plants, and, although a filamentous organization may be. The Americans operate such hydraulic dredges to harvest soft clams, and the British use similar machines for cockles. [2]


Last is shown kelp encrusting bryozoan ( Membranipora membranacea ) on giant kelp blade, San Clemente Island, California, 1.5 inches. [18] Below are pictured a California bat ray ( Myliobatis californica ), a school of blacksmith ( Chromis punctipinnis ) and a diver amid kelp, all photographed at San Clemente Island, California. [18]

Opportunistic blue sharks ( Prionace glauca ) and ocean sunfish ( Mola mola ) can often be found hanging around drift kelp. [18] Baitfish, flying fish and juvenile fish seek protection amidst drift kelp. Ocean sunfish ( Mola mola ) approach kelp paddies, hoping to encounter other fishes that will clean them of parasites. [18]

Kelp offers protection for prey, a hiding place for predators, and a substrate upon which smaller creatures can grow. [18] Pacific white-sided dolphins ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens ) have been known to play with pieces of drift kelp. [18]


Sardines, leopard sharks and a host of other fishes weave among the fronds of kelp, which grow up to four inches a day. The longer you look, the more life you'll find hidden in the forest, like this beautiful sunflower star. [19] The exhibit opens to the sky and the light streaming through the amber fronds helps the kelp grow more than 4 inches a day. [19]


The recovery of kelp forests from barren states has been documented following dramatic perturbations, such as urchin disease or large shifts in thermal conditions. [3] The removal of multiple predators can effectively release urchins from predator pressure and allow the system to follow trajectories towards kelp forest degradation. Similar examples exist in Nova Scotia, South Africa, Australia and Chile. [3]

Another major area of kelp forest research has been directed at understanding the spatial-temporal patterns of kelp patches. Not only do such dynamics affect the physical landscape, but they also affect species that associate with kelp for refuge or foraging activities. [3] Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of Central California. [3] Expansion of a central California kelp forest following the mass mortality of sea urchins. [3] In a well-studied example from Alaskan kelp forests, sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) control populations of herbivorous sea urchins through predation. [3] Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. [3]

Kelp Watch - a project by the Department of Primary Industries, Water & Environment of the government of Tasmania, Australia, with excellent general information on kelp forests as well as specific information on Tasmanian kelp forests. [3] Many now theorise that the first colonisation of the Americas was due to fishing communities following the Pacific Kelp Forests during the last Ice Age. [3] Effects of a large sewage spill on a kelp forest community: catastrophe or disturbance? Marine Environmental Research 40: 181-224. [3] Predator diversity strengthens trophic cascades in kelp forests by modifying herbivore behavior. [3]

Overfishing higher trophic levels that naturally regulate herbivore populations is also recognized as an important stressor in kelp forests. [3]

Though urchins are usually the dominant herbivore, others with significant interaction strengths include seastars, isopods, kelp crabs, and herbivorous fishes. In many cases, these organisms feed on kelp that has been dislodged from substrate and drifts near the ocean floor rather than expend energy searching for intact thalli to feed on. [3] History of kelp beds ( Macrocystis ) in Orange and San Diego Counties, California. [3]


Giant kelps, of the genus Macrocystis, are rich in minerals and produce algin algin, a complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) useful in various industrial processes, including tire manufacture. [2] Black became interested and analyzed burned kelp (a form of seaweed) obtained from different sources on the Scottish coast. He demonstrated that the alkali yield could vary significantly from place to place. [2] Among the sheldgeese are several South American species of Chloëphaga the kelp goose ( C. hybrida ), the Magellan goose ( C. pic ta ), and the Andean goose ( C. melanop tera )and the Orinoco goose ( Neochen jubatus ). [2] Link to this article and share the full text with the readers of your Web site or blog-post. If you think a reference to this article on "kelp" will enhance your Web site, blog-post, or any other web-content, then feel free to link to this article, and your readers will gain full access to the full article, even if they do not subscribe to our service. [2]


In a dense kelp forest, the rocky reef can hardly be seen beneath the many kelp plants (middle). [18] When it reaches the surface, the kelp plant continues to grow and will spread out at the surface to form a thick canopy. [18] Sometimes the kelp's holdfast will fail, and the kelp plant will drift off. It will float at the surface and continue to grow until it is beached or reaches water that is too warm. [18] These bladders help elevate the kelp plant from the bottom, towards sunlight and the water's surface. [18]


The sea water we pump into our Kelp Forest contains plankton and young animals, like clams and mussels, that settle and grow inside our pipes and eventually clog them. [19] We've created a print-size version of our Kelp Forest poster featuring 50 animals and plants. [19]

Divers hand-feed fishes daily at our Kelp Forest feeding show at 11:30 a.m. and 4 p.m. Don't miss the colorful male sheephead - his big buckteeth are used for crunching lunch. [19] At 28 feet high, the Kelp Forest is one of the tallest aquarium exhibits in the world. [19] Our Kelp Forest Feeding Program is a good time to spot a wolf eel. It spends most of its time with its long, slender body tucked between the rocks. This three-story exhibit presents a diver's-eye view of a dynamic towering kelp forest. [19]

Each towering kelp plant is like an apartment building, sheltering a host of fishes, crabs and other creatures. [19]


On the rocky cold-water coasts of North and South America, for example, are found vast forestlike kelp beds made up of brown algae of the genus Laminaria, with individual plants often reaching heights of 100 feet (30 metres) or more. They harbour a rich animal. [2] Most pets have a short lifespan. To help insure that your beloved pets lifespan is a healthy one, give them Kelp Products food supplements. [20] Adding to my delight, when I finished working at about 4am (remember, I am Vampire Kelp Woman), I walked into the living room and found my eyes squinting from the surprise of moonlight bouncing off an inch of snow covering everything in view. Were I a more talented photog perhaps I could have captured this magic, but it remains in my memory. [21] KELP offers an exciting combination of activities about leadership studies and research on water quality. [22] The Kansas Environmental Leadership Program ( KELP ) is a new approach to community leadership training. [22]


Native Americans had many uses for kelp, including medicine, food, salt, and fishing gear. Modern day uses include the extraction of algin, which is used in everday products such as paints, synthetics, pharmaceuticals, rubbers, beer and toothpaste. [23] Off the coast, beyond the crashing surf, where the ebb and flow of the ocean currents bathe shallow reefs, sways the majestic kelp. [23] Bull kelp typically reach lengths of 60 feet or more in a lifespan of 1-2 years. [23] The number of living creatures of all Orders, whose existence intimately depends on the kelp, is wonderful. [23]

At the surface, the fronds continue to grow, forming a dense canopy. The canopy is teeming with juvenile fish and invertebrate larvae, which in turn may feed seabirds such as the marbled murrelet, a threatened species along the Pacific Northwest coast. Other predators in the kelp forest include the sea urchin. [23] At the top of the complex kelp forest food web is the sea otter, which can help control the urchin numbers. [23] Kelp occurs along coastlines that have an upwelling of cool, nutrient-rich waters, with temperatures usually 68 degrees Fahrenheit. Dense stands of these brown algaes are called kelp forests. These beautiful and biologically productive habitats are found in shallow, sunlit waters - usually less than 30 meters deep - from the Arctic to the Antarctic Circles. [23]


Fifteen graduate students used the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) Virtual Reality Modeling Language opnbrktVRMLclsbrkt, physically based modeling and analytic simulation techniques to model the three-dimensional (3D) shape and motion of plants and animals in the kelp forest exhibit kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Monterey Bay Aquarium. [24] New : draft journal paper, " Teaching 3D Modeling and Simulation: Virtual Kelp Forest Case Study." [24]


Giant kelp is one of the world's fastest growing plants. It can grow as much as 300 feet in a single year. When the tops reach the surface, they keep on growing to form a floating mat. [7] Giant kelp grows in cool coastal waters where sunlight can go down to a rocky sea floor. [7]

Kelp needs sunlight in order to grow. It also needs a hard surface to grow on. [7]


Coming out of the garage above Rincon Point in April, 1996, Kelp has played up and down the California Coast. [25] Like the mix of songs, a mix of traditional spring reverb with modern digital enhancements and stereo amplification gives Kelp a big and thoroughly modern sound. Influences range from the inimitable Dick Dale and Paul Johnson to modern bands such as The Mermen, The Insect Surfers, Brazil 2001 and Savage Republic. [25]


The kelp plant is "anchored" to the seafloor by a root-like structure called a holdfast. [23] Sea otters generally eat abalone. They hang out in kelp to avoid drifting around when floating on their backs eating. [26] Can grow to 200 feet in ocean waters, but in protected Puget Sound, bull kelp often reaches 20 feet. [1] "Of all the kelps and seaweeds that hug the shorelines of Puget Sound ­ none is more spectacular, evoking mythical sea monsters than the giant bull kelp." [1] Bull kelp goes by a number of colorful names; Bull whip kelp, ribbon kelp, bulb kelp, giant kelp, sea kelp, horsetail kelp, and sea otter's cabbage. [1]

The decomposing kelp provides food and beach shelter for scavenging amphipods and other animals. [1] Today, kelp extracts are used in industry. Kelp extract (algin) thickens products such as ice cream, salad dressing, hand lotion, and paint. [1] By winter, the kelp are dying. Storms and waves leave them on the beach, where they appear as brown "bull whips." [1]


The kelp forest is a forest, but it is not a forest of trees. It is made of seaweed called giant kelp. [7] Kelp forests, long held to be limited to cold waters, have been discovered in the tropics and may be more widespread than previously thought, new research shows. These expanses of large brown seaweeds are known to serve as hotspots for marine diversity in colder climes; they teem with fish and other animals that take shelter in their dense stands. To read this story in full you will need to login or make a payment (see right). [27]

Link to this article and share the full text with the readers of your Web site or blog-post. If you think a reference to this article on "kelp crab" will enhance your Web site, blog-post, or any other web-content, then feel free to link to this article, and your readers will gain full access to the full article, even if they do not subscribe to our service. [28] Sargassum stays afloat by producing gas-filled bladders which act like buoys. You can see these in the picture at left; the picture also shows the typical jagged-edged blades. Life here is precarious for animals who are poor swimmers — they must maintain a firm grip on floating mats of kelp, or be lost to the ocean depths. Such a floating ecosystem of course will have difficulties in acquiring nutrients, and will therefore be severely limited by access to such nutrients. [29]

Some of the more unusual forms include fish and crabs which are camouflagued to look like Sargassum. Perhaps the best known of these is the pipefish Syngnathus pelagicus, a relative of the seahorse. This fish is brownish-green, and is covered by flaps of skin which resemble the kelp blades. [29]

The Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study is collecting data on biogeochemical cycling in the Sargasso Sea. Their site includes much data and some nice satellite photographs. Or read this Research Paper Research Paper by William W. Bushing on kelp populations around Santa Catalina Island, CA. [29] The largest kelps are diploid, and release flagellated swimming sperm into the water to find egg cells. It has been shown that chemical signals called pheromones aid the sperm in their quest in at least some phaeophytes. [29]

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Kelp forests soften the force of waves against the shoreline. This protection can be seen along the Strait of Juan De Fuca where large kelp beds form bay-like areas along the shoreward side. These bay-like waters provide feeding areas for loons, scoters, grebes, goldeneyes, and Buffleheads. [1] Underwater kelp forests shelter snails, crabs, shrimp, starfish, sea anemones, sea cucumbers, brittle stars, sea squirts, and many other marine creatures. [1]

Kelp beds provide a resting area for otters, gulls, herons, shorebirds, and waterfowl. [1]


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SeaCrop Soluble Kelp Powder 1-3-14 (NPK) Re-hydrating 10 ounces of soluble powder with 1 gallon of water makes a liquid kelp extract that provides natural based plant hormones and micronutrients. [31] Kelp extract provides natural based plant hormones and micronutrients resulting in healthier and more productive plants. [31]

A complete, naturally balanced plant food providing a blend of rich micronutrients from kelp and macronutrients from ocean fish. [31]

Increase your knowledge! Let Professor Kelpy help you find technical and educational documents pertaining to kelp products. [31] The kelp crab ( Pugettia producta ), a spider crab found among seaweed on the Pacific coast from Canada to Mexico, is about 1.25 cm (0.5 inch) wide and 2.5 cm (1 inch) long. It is green and red on top and green underneath. [28]


Kelp recruits most successfully in regions of upwelling (regions where the ocean layers overturn, bringing cool, nutrient-rich bottom waters to the surface) and regions with continuously cold, high-nutrient waters. [11] Kelp favors nutrient-rich, cool waters that range in temperature from 5o to 20o C (42o to 72o F). These brown algae communities live in clear water conditions through which light penetrates easily. [11]

Years later, conservationists moved some remaining otters from Big Sur to Central California. Gradually, their numbers grew, sea urchin numbers declined, and the kelp began to grow again. [11] Giant kelp can live up to seven years. Factors such as the severity of winter storms may affect its life span. Its average growth (in spring) is 27 cm/day (~10 inches/day), yet it may grow up to 61 cm/day (2 ft/day). [11] Along the central California coast where the distribution of giant kelp and bull kelp overlap, giant kelp out competes bull kelp for light. [11] Giant kelp inhabits the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary as well as the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, where giant kelp and bull kelp coexist. [11]

Sea otters, playing a critical role in containing the urchin populations, prey on urchins and thus control the numbers of kelp grazers. [11] California sea lions, harbor seals, sea otters, and whales may feed in the kelp or escape storms or predators in the shelter of kelp. [11]

Gas bladders called pneumatocysts, another unique feature of kelp, keep the upper portions of the algae afloat. [11] From the holdfasts to the surface mats of kelp fronds, the array of habitats on the kelp itself may support thousands of invertebrate individuals, including polychaetes, amphipods, decapods, and ophiuroids. [11] One of the sea otter's favorite delicacies is the sea urchin who in turn loves kelp. [11]


Do you have kelp in your house? Chances are you do! Kelp and other seaweeds are used in a variety of common foods and household items like toothpaste, frozen desserts and salad dressings. [32] Many household products, medicines, and cosmetics contain substances from kelp - including dog food and lipstick. [32] Now, a project to regrow kelp off the Orange County coast is starting to show results, thanks to marine biologist Nancy Caruso and a team of volunteer divers who plant young kelp and check on it twice a week. [6] Please urge fisherman and divers to spare the larger stocks. Commercial fishinerman rip kelp apart with their trap gear, that's got to stop. Cloudy water from runoff reduces needed sunlight to the plants. Send Nancy lots of support for this project [6] The urchins eat the kelp holdfasts, so the kelp dies, leaving no habitat for the creatures that live in and around it — including fish. [6] The kelp seems to be doing fine, and the aquarium partnership will go a long way toward sustaining the program. Schubel said he's committed $25,000 this year and up to $75,000 in 2008. After that, Caruso and the aquarium will continue to work with schools and other organizations, and they'll seek grants and other funding. That may be where Caruso's job is the hardest. "Nobody funds marine restoration because nobody's doing it," she said. [6]

In five years, about 4,000 students have been taught to grow kelp. "The whole idea behind this project is to create stewardship for the ocean in the community," Caruso said. "If it was just a bunch of scientists out here, there's nobody on the beach to even see us doing this." [6] Caruso is trying to show that replanting the kelp is working, using control sites where no kelp is planted. She seems to be proven right. "Man, there's a lot of kelp down there," she said, coming up after a dive — and she noticed it's growing a little farther from the ocean's surface than in other years, which is also a good sign. [6]


Pictured above is a kelp bed located near Monterey, California. We will have more on these important communities at a later time. [29] Giant kelp, perhaps the most recognized species of brown macroalgae, forms the more southern kelp forests, from the southern Channel Islands, California to northwestern Baja. [11] Tiered like a terrestrial rainforest with a canopy and several layers below, the kelp forests of the eastern Pacific coast are dominated by two canopy-forming, brown macroalgae species, giant kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ) and bull kelp ( Nereocystis leutkeana ). [11]

In California's Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary the sea otter is a keystone species in the kelp forest ecosystem. [11] All larger marine life, including birds and mammals, may retreat to kelp during storms or high-energy regimes because the kelp helps to weaken currents and waves. Perhaps the most familiar image of kelp forests is a picture of a sea otter draped in strands of kelp, gripping a sea urchin on its belly. Both sea otters ( Enhydra lutris ) and sea urchins ( Strongylocentrotus spp. ) play critical roles in the stable equilibrium ecosystem. [11]

Because the amount of dissolved inorganic nitrogen decreases significantly in marine waters warmer than 20oC, kelp experiences reduced or negative growth rates in warm water. This phenomenon is particularly evident in southern California where giant kelp forests deteriorate in the summer months. [11] Kelp forests grow predominantly on the Pacific Coast, from Alaska and Canada to the waters of Baja California. [11]

Winter storms and high-energy environments easily uproot the kelp and can wash entire plants ashore. The kelp forests in Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary are small and localized compared to those in the Channel Islands, Monterey Bay, and Olympic Coast sanctuaries. [11] In the more northern Gulf of the Farallones and Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuaries, kelp forests are comprised of predominantly bull kelp. [11]

Conditions influencing kelp forest development in Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary may include: increased wave motion, unsuitable substrate, urchin predation, and turbidity and salinity effects of the San Francisco Bay plume. [11] When sea otters decline, urchin numbers explode and grab onto kelp like flies on honey. The urchins chew off the anchors that keep the kelp in place, causing them to die and float away, setting off a chain reaction that depletes the food supply for other marine animals causing their numbers to decline. By the early 20th century when sea otters were nearly hunted out of existence for their fur, kelp beds disappeared and so did the marine life that depended on kelp. [11] The Kelp Forest Ecosystem: A host of invertebrates, fish, marine mammals, and birds exist in kelp forest environs. [11] Urchins move in "herds," and enough urchins may remain in the "barrens" of a former kelp forest to negate any attempt at regrowth. [11] Conditions required for growth: Kelp forests grow along rocky coastlines in depths of about 2 m to more than 30 m (6 to 90+ ft). [11] Kelp forests provide food and shelter for large numbers of fish and shellfish. [11] Sea urchins graze kelp and may reach population densities large enough to destroy kelp forests at the rate of 30 feet per month. [11]

A bull kelp plant has only one pneumatocyst that supports several blades near the water's surface. Life histories: Giant kelp is a perennial (i.e. it lives for several years) while bull kelp is an annual (i.e. it completes its life cycle in one year). Both types of kelp have a two-stage life cycle. They exist in their earliest life stages as spores, released with millions of others from the parent kelp, the sporophyte. [11] Unique Characteristics of Kelp Plants: Instead of tree-like roots that extend into the substrate, kelp has "anchors" called holdfasts that grip onto rocky substrates. [11]


Saltwater Farms Retail Products Liquid kelp plant food and liquid kelp and fish fertilizer available in pints and gallons. [31]

Notes from the Kelp represents a decade's worth of the joy I get from communicating. All of the music you hear in this collection was composed in Malibu, California, with the Pacific ocean undulating in the background and framing my life with beauty and endless things to explore. [12]

Notes From the Kelp is a collection of eight of Alex's representative works. Scroll down this page to read about each of the pieces on the new disc and hear excerpts. Visit other pages of this website, linked above and below, to learn more about Alex's life and music. [12] Alex's music has been featured on many CDs many CDs from Europe and the U.S., and Notes From the Kelp is the first disc comprised entirely of her works. The CD features 24 fabulous musicians who brought this music to life, each listed here here. [12] As you read this, I now live in another natural seaside paradise in Washington's magical San Juan Islands. The notes I scribble these days are also from the kelp, and from a deep, watery place that a kid who grew up in Manhattan for her first 21 years could never have imagined becoming so meaningful in her life. [12]


Reaching upwards from the rocky floor, the giant kelp canopy shadows the wondrous forest below. [33] The different regions of the kelp play host to a wide variety of fish and invertebrates. This underwater forest is like no other forest you have ever seen. [33] There were several fishing boats, and a diving boat close to the mass of kelp. He tells us that his father often dives under what he calls the kelp canopy. Your group becomes so interested in kelp that they decide to do research on the subject, and prepare a full report for an upcoming science project. [34]


Macrocystis pyrifera, or giant kelp, forms huge beds along the western coast of North America. Individual kelp plants extend from the rocky reef and sand bottom to the surface, where they grow out and form a canopy. These kelp beds are home to a rich array of life. [35] Macrocystis pyrifera, primarily that growing at San Clemente and Santa Barbara Islands, has been a photographic subject of ours for 14 years. Small gas bladders — pneumatocysts — connect the kelp's stipes ("stems") to its blades ("leaves"). These bladders help elevate the kelp plant from the bottom, towards sunlight and the water's surface. [35]

In a dense kelp forest, the rocky reef can hardly be seen beneath the many kelp plants. Kelp is constantly in motion, tossed about by currents, swells and, for those plants reaching the surface, the wind. [35] The kelp plant must withstand surge, back and forth water movement caused by large swells passing by. [35] New growth occurs at the tip of the kelp plant, where tiny pneumatocysts form along with new fronds. [35]


Caruso goes to Orange County schools to talk to kids about kelp, and the kids then grow tiny kelp plants that divers later transplant to the ocean. [6] Susy Horowitz, a volunteer diver with California Coastkeeper Alliance, examines a brown kelp plant found floating in Newport Bay on Wednesday. [6] Caruso and her volunteer divers, who have been working under the aegis of the California Coastkeeper Alliance, maintain kelp beds at 12 sites from Corona del Mar to mid-Laguna Beach. On a recent trip to kelp beds in Corona del Mar, Caruso and volunteer divers Susy Horowitz and Dennis Poulson rescued 15 kelp plants that had come loose from whatever they were growing on, and they took them to be replanted off Crystal Cove. [6] California Coastkeeper Alliance and volunteer divers work to rescue and regrow kelp beds off Orange County coast. [6]

Randy Seton wrote on Aug 18, 2007 8:47 AM: " What a great ongoing project! We need to teach the sportfishing industry about these kelp projects and how kelp is a huge benefit to coastal fishing. [6]


Fucus vesiculosus is a brown seaweed that grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and the North and Baltic seas. Its name is sometimes used for Ascophyllum nodosum, which is another brown seaweed that grows alongside Fucus vesiculosus. These species are often included in kelp preparations along with other types of seaweed. [36] Black-tang, bladder, bladder fucus, bladderwrack, Blasen-tang, brown algae, common seawrack, cut weed, Dyers fucus, edible seaweed, fucoidan, fucoxantin, Fucus, green algae, Hai-ts'ao, kelp, kelpware, knotted wrack, Meereiche, Quercus marina, popping wrack, red algae, red fucus, rockrack, rockweed, schweintang, sea kelp, sea oak, seetang, seaware, seaweed, sea wrack, swine tang, tang, Varech vesiculeux, vraic, wrack. [36] Skibola CF, Curry JD, VandeVoort C, et al. Brown kelp modulates endocrine hormones in female sprague-dawley rats and in human luteinized granulosa cells. [36] Abnormal bleeding and reduced blood platelet count was attributed to contaminants in a kelp product. [36]


Giant kelp ( Macrocystis pyrifera ), a brown alga, is the Redwood of the ocean. It is a magnificent giant that plays a key role in the ecology of the kelp forest. [33] Importance of stage that you have chosen, to the existence of the whole plant. (How does this stage help the plant sustain life). What type of animal life might you find in this particular stage of the kelp forest? (Example: sea otters live and thrive in the kelp canopy). [34] Sites listed in internet bullet above, are used by students for kelp forest research. [34] First you need to decide which stage of the kelp forest you would like to study. [34] By the end of all three reports, the entire class will have a basic understanding of the kelp forest, and the importance of its existence. [34]


The other type, the Laminaria species, is used in our Laminaria Kelp supplements. [37] One type is used in our Omega kelp vitamins, with high concentrations of Omega-3 and 6 oils. [37]

Cooking with kelp is easy! Here's a couple of recipes recipes to get you started. "This amazing seaweed contains more vitamins and minerals than any other food." [37] Do you know the difference between seaweed and kelp seaweed and kelp ? Find out. [37]

Too much of one vitamin can interfere with absorption of another. As a naturally balanced food source, kelp supplements eliminate this guesswork. [37] Food researchers and nutritionists in the West are now beginning to explore the important role kelp can play in your health. Vita-Kelp Enterprises is at the forefront of this exploration. [37]


In the cool, coastal waters of California there are submerged forests of a marine algae known as kelp. [9] Growing as much as 2 feet a day, giant kelp is one of the fastest growing plants in the world. [9] Please refer to the Secrets of the Ocean Realm episode "Cathdral in the Sea" for more information about kelp. [9]


Like plants and many protists, brown algae undergo a complex life cycle involving alternation of generations alternation of generations. In this picture, you can see a diploid kelp with flat photosynthetic structures, the blades, branching from the stipe, or stalk. [38] Sometimes the holdfast at the bottom of the plant will detach itself and the kelp will rise to the surface and float about, still growing until it reaches waters that are too hot or until it ends up on a beach. This floating mat can provide an oasis in the middle of the ocean for small and juvenile fish. Predators also will take advantage of this and stalk a patch of kelp for these small fish. [8] Most forms of kelp will bond themselves to a rock or hard surface on the bottom of the ocean. [8]

Phaeophyceae, or giant kelp, is a brown algae that is generally found in a costal, temperate, marine environment. It lives well in environments where the water is less than 72 degrees F and the water is less than 40m. [8] There are about 265 genera, and 1500-2000 species of giant kelp and some can grow up to 200 ft tall, and grow about 2 ft. per day, other will only be 2 m tall. [8]

Commercially, kelp is a very useful product. It can produce Algin, which is an emulsifier, that is used in mover 300 different products. It is used for vitamins, acetone, iodine, paints, toothpaste, dental impression compound, ice cream, canned food, cosmetics, shampoo, and many processed foods. [8]

Kelp forests provide an ecosystem in itself. It is home to a diverse range of marine life that feed on it and on eachother. They offer hiding places for both prey and predators, and places for smaller creatures can grow. [8] A kelp forest can be up to a mile wide by a few miles long and support thousands of species of animals. [8]


From the canopy, where the tangled plants can be seen lying along the water's surface, to the bottom as much as 130 feet below, the kelp forest is home to a surprising variety of creatures. [9] Construct cutouts of kelp forest inhabitants based on field-guide photographs. Place animal cutouts in their appropriate positions on or near the plant. Discuss the relationships among kelp forest inhabitants and their relationships to the giant kelp plant. [9] Use drawing to instruct students in the anatomy of a giant kelp plant, labeling the principal parts: holdfast, haptera, stipe, bladders, blades and canopy. After students are familiar with the giant kelp plant structure (reviewing the program will reinforce this familiarity), have them begin to draw outlines of these structures in pencil on the unrolled brown parcel paper. [9] The giant kelp plant has long, sinuous stipes-stems that are supported by gas-filled bladders located at the base of each leaflike blade. The plant is anchored to rocky bottoms by its holdfast, a rootlike mass of tangled haptera. [9] Time Needed For Activity: One 45-minute period to construct giant kelp plant, one 45-minute period to cut out paper animals and one 45-minute period to place all together-while conducting discussion-for an accurate representation of the kelp-forest community. [9] Begin by drawing a giant kelp plant on blackboard or another large-format, visual aid surface. [9] Construct a model giant kelp plant based on the above information and images viewed in the program. [9]

The natural compound algin, extracted from the kelp plant, is used as a thickening, stabilizing and smoothing agent in hundreds of products ranging from salad dressings to cosmetics. Have students identify such products containing algin in their homes or at the supermarket and report on their uses. [9] Attach the animals to the kelp plant in the proper positions, referring to the program. [9]

While many fish species can be found swimming among the stipes and blades, many more invertebrates shelter and feed amid the tangles of the kelp's holdfast. [9]


Our kelp is harvested from an isolated sound off Vancouver Island, for the highest quality supplements on the market today. [37] Our Kelp Meal is made from live, ocean-harvested seaweed (Ascophyllus nodosum), not from kelp that was washed up on shore. [39]

The kelp plants that support underwater forests often hang down more than 100 feet below canopy of leaves that spread out across the surface of an ocean. [40] The new forests are made out of kelp plants that harbor a huge range of plants and animals. Like tropical rainforests, they may be refuges from threats posed by global climate change. [40]


Scientists map the kelp from planes to track whether particular forests are growing or shrinking. [14] Kelp is a giant, yellow-brown, rubbery seaweed stretching from the sea floor to the surface. [14]

Teams of scuba divers go underwater to survey the plants and animals of the kelp forest. [14] Urchins eat kelp, and sea otters eat sea urchins. In places where sea otters have disappeared, sea urchins will eat the kelp forest until it's gone. They leave behind desolate areas called urchin barrens. [14]


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4. Kelp
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6. Daily Pilot - Serving Newport Beach & Costa Mesa, California
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7. Kelp Forest
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8. Phaeophyceae - MicrobeWiki
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9. Secrets of the Ocean Realm - In the School "Cathedral in the Sea"
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10. Kelp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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12. Alex Shapiro, composer: Notes from the Kelp
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13. Kelp Forests
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14. Science News for Kids: Feature: Sea Otters, Kelp, and Killer Whales
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15. Monterey Bay Aquarium: Kelp Forest Exhibit - Live Kelp Cam
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16. Habitats: Kelp - Characteristics
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17. North American Kelp
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18. Kelp Forest Photos, Macrocystis pyrifera Photographs, Phillip Colla Natural History Photography
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20. KELP PRODUCTS OF FLORIDA FOOD SUPPLEMENTS FOR ANIMALS AND PEOPLE All natural, herbal. No additives, preservatives, dyes.
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21. notes from the kelp
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22. Welcome to KELP: Kansas Environmental Leadship Program
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26. Modern Mechanix: Kelp-O-Malt: Skinny Girls
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29. Life History and Ecology of the Phaeophyta
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30. Algae and kelp detox. Boston detox. Free diet detox diet. Center detox florida. Veterinary detox.
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31. North American Kelp - Products
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33. Macrocystis index
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35. Kelp Forest, Macrocystis pyrifera, Natural History Photographs
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36. MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Seaweed, kelp, bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus)
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37. MegaKelp Supplements - Welcome to Mega Kelp
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38. Introduction to the Phaeophyta
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39. Kelp Meal
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40. Massive Underwater Forests Found in Pacific : NPR
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