Ginkgo Biloba

GENERAL INFO

Ginkgo Biloba is an herbal product. It works by increasing blood flow to the brain. Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you. [1]
Although Ginkgo biloba is the only extant species of ginkgos today, many ginkgo relatives have been found in the fossil record. [2]
Ginkgo biloba is the only surviving member of the ginkgo family. While its relatives became extinct in other parts of the world Ginkgo biloba survived in China, where it became known to Europeans in the eighteenth century, and subsequently was introduced as a ornamental tree throughout the Western world. [5]
The Ginkgo biloba is the sole remaining species within the Division Ginkgophyta. [6]
Ginkgo biloba is a highly adaptable plant that can grow in almost any temperate or Mediterranean climate. It is also resistant to pollution and pests. These attributes have made the male ginkgos very popular in cities. [2]
Ginkgo biloba is one of many herbal supplements that has captured the hearts of Americans and has become one of our favorites. [4]
Ginkgo biloba appears to be relatively safe, although some people have mild gastrointestinal discomfort. [4]
A review 31 of five heterogenous randomized controlled trials concluded that extracts of ginkgo biloba are moderately effective in treating tinnitus. [3]
Extracts of ginkgo biloba are among the most widely used dietary supplements. [7]

KEY TOPICS

Section Contents:

* Schneider LS, DeKosky ST, Farlow MR, Tariot PN, Hoerr R, Kieser M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract in dementia of the Alzheimer's type.(More…)

* This article is about the genus of mainly extinct trees.(More…)

* Ginkgo Biloba also acts as a powerful antioxidant, and helps kill the free radicals, which contributes to aging.(More…)

* Meyer B. Multicenter randomized double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract.(More…)

Schneider LS, DeKosky ST, Farlow MR, Tariot PN, Hoerr R, Kieser M. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of two doses of Ginkgo biloba extract in dementia of the Alzheimer's type. [8] Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 in dementia. [8]

Mazza M, Capuano A, Bria P, Mazza S. Ginkgo biloba and donepezil: a comparison in the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. [8] Kohler, S., Funk, P., and Kieser, M. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. [8] Horsch, S. and Walther, C. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD)—a review based on randomized, controlled studies. [8]

Rai GS, Shovlin C, Wesnes KA. A double-blind, placebo controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract ('tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. [8] Kenney C, Norman M, Jacobson M, and et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, modified crossover pilot study of the effects of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive and functional abilities in multiple sclerosis. [8]

Johnson SK, Diamond BJ, Rausch S, Kaufman M, Shiflett SC, Graves L. The effect of Ginkgo biloba on functional measures in multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized controlled trial. [8] Hartley, D. E., Elsabagh, S., and File, S. E. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women. [8] Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. [8] Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, Itil TM, Freedman AM, Schatzberg AF. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. [8] Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba special extract Egb 761 on intermittent claudication a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. [8] Ernst E, Pittler MH. Ginkgo biloba for dementia: a systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. [8] Drew S, Davies E. Effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba in treating tinnitus: double blind, placebo controlled trial. [8]

Trick, L., Boyle, J., and Hindmarch, I. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (LI 1370) supplementation and discontinuation on activities of daily living and mood in free living older volunteers. [8] Rosenblatt M, Mindel J. Spontaneous hyphema associated with ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract. [8] Sikora R, Sohn M, Deutz F-J, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract in the therapy of erectile dysfunction. [8] Diamond BJ, Shiflett SC, Feiwel N, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract: mechanisms and clinical indications. [8]

Kim YS, Pyo MK, Park KM, et al. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of a combination of ticlopidine and Ginkgo biloba ext (EGb 761). [8] Huang, S. Y., Jeng, C., Kao, S. C., Yu, J. J., and Liu, D. Z. Improved haemorrheological properties by Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb 761) in type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with retinopathy. [8] Galluzzi S, Zanetti O, Binetti G, Trabucchi M, Frisoni GB. Coma in a patient with Alzheimer's disease taking low dose trazodone and Ginkgo biloba. [8] Vellas, B., and Grandjean, H. Association of Alzheimer's disease onset with ginkgo biloba and other symptomatic cognitive treatments in a population of women aged 75 years and older from the EPIDOS study. [8] Kampman, K., Majewska, M. D., Tourian, K., et al., A pilot trial of piracetam and ginkgo biloba for the treatment of cocaine dependence. [8] Cylosporine — Ginkgo biloba may help protect the cells of the body during treatment with the immunosuppressive (decreases immunity) drug cyclosporine. Thiazide diuretics - Although there has been one literature report of increased blood pressure associated with the use of ginkgo during treatment with thiazide diuretics, this interaction has not been verified by clinical trials. [8] Cieza, A., Maier, P., and Poppel, E. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers. [8] Persson, J., Bringlov, E., Nilsson, L. G., and Nyberg, L. The memory-enhancing effects of Ginseng and Ginkgo biloba in healthy volunteers. [8]

Manocha A, Pillai KK, Husain SZ. Influence of Ginkgo biloba on the effect of anticonvulsants. [8]

Birks, J., Grimley, E. V., and Van Dongen, M. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. [8] Oken BS, Storzbach DM, Kaye JA. The efficacy of Ginkgo biloba on cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. [8] Mix JA, Crews WD. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract Egb 761 on the neuropsychiatric functioning of cognitively intact older adults. [8]

Benjamin J, Muir T, Briggs K, Pentland B. A case of cerebral haemorrhage-can Ginkgo biloba be implicated? Postgrad Med J. 2001;77(904):112-113. [8] Barth SA, Inselmann G, Engemann R, Heidemann HT. Influences of Ginkgo biloba on cyclosporin A induced lipid peroxidation in human liver microsomes in comparison to vitamin E, glutathione and N-Acetylcysteine. [8] Aruna D, Naidu MU.Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects. [8]

"Differential cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba after acute and chronic treatment in healthy young volunteers". [9] Although Ginkgo biloba and other species of the genus were once widespread throughout the world, the tree currently occurs in the wild only in the northwest of Zhejiang province in the Tianmu Shan mountain reserve in eastern China, but even its status as a naturally occurring species there is questionable. [9] " Genetic variation of Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) based on cpDNA PCR-RFLPs: inference of glacial refugia ". [9] Does ginkgo biloba increase the risk of bleeding? A systematic review of case reports. [9]


This article is about the genus of mainly extinct trees. For its single living species, the Ginkgo tree, see Ginkgo biloba. [10] Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. [11] One small study using oral ginkgo biloba extract 40 milligrams three times daily reports that ginkgo appears to arrest the progression of this disease. Better-designed studies are needed to confirm these results. [11] Evidence from one non-placebo controlled study suggests Ginkgo biloba extract may offer benefit to individuals with retinopathy. [11] Adverse effects on the eyes have also been reported. Another study reported vomiting and convulsions from large quantities of MPN (4-O-methylpyridoxine), which is contained in Ginkgo biloba seeds. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Use of ginkgo is not recommended during pregnancy and breastfeeding due to lack of reliable scientific study in this area. [11] The results of one study investigating the effect of Ginkgo biloba on post-prandial mental alertness are unclear. [11]

Elsabagh, S., Hartley, D. E., and File, S. E. Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba. [11] Issing, W., Klein, P., and Weiser, M. The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. [11] Results from one clinical trial suggest that Ginkgo biloba may be effective in reducing the number of Raynaud's attacks in patients suffering from Raynaud's disease. In order to confirm these results, further clinical trials are required. [11] Wheatley, D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. [11] Numerous studies suggest that Ginkgo biloba taken by mouth causes small improvements in claudication symptoms (leg pain with exercise or at rest due to clogged arteries). Ginkgo may not be as helpful for this condition as exercise therapy or prescription drugs. [11]


Ginkgo Biloba also acts as a powerful antioxidant, and helps kill the free radicals, which contributes to aging. Ginkgo is well recognized for its positive effect on brain functioning - enhancing memory, mental alertness, and reducing mental fatigue and lack of energy. [12] Despite the many benefits Ginkgo Biloba has, it also has some side effects you should be aware of. Especially for individuals with blood circulation disorders and those taking anti-coagulants such as aspirin - best thing to do is to consult with your doctor before using any. [12] Even for a healthy person, Ginkgo Biloba can help improve brain function by preventing and treating conditions of cerebral vascular deficiencies, where there's decreased flow of blood to the brain. [12] Ginkgo Biloba works by increasing blood flow to the brain, and through the entire body's network of blood vessels, which supplies oxygen and nutrients. [12] The Chinese have used Ginkgo Biloba to relief asthma, lung congestion, and have also used Ginkgo Biloba to increase sexual energy, regulate blood flow, and promote general longevity. [12] Ginkgo Biloba was first introduced to Europe in the 1700's, and is now used all over the world. [12] Ginkgo Biloba comes from the Ginkgo tree, and is one of the oldest living tree species. [12] Generally, Ginkgo Biloba supplements should be taking in range of 40mg to 200mg per day. [12] Over the past 30 years, more than 300 studies have show Ginkgo Biloba to provide a host of benefits for the body. [12]


Meyer B. Multicenter randomized double-blind drug vs. placebo study of the treatment of tinnitus with Ginkgo biloba extract. [3] Bauer U. 6-Month double-blind randomised clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba extract versus placebo in two parallel groups in patients suffering from peripheral arterial insufficiency. [3]

Ahlemeyer B, Kriegelstein J. Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract. [3] A review 31 of five heterogenous randomized controlled trials concluded that extracts of ginkgo biloba are moderately effective in treating tinnitus. [3] Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication—a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. [3] Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, Horr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. [3] Sastre J, Millan A, Garcia de la Asuncion J, Pla R, Juan G, Pallardo, et al. A Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) prevents mitochondrial aging by protecting against oxidative stress. [3] Schweizer J, Hautmann C. Comparison of two dosages of ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease Fontaine's stage IIb. [3]

Birks J, Grimley E, Van Dongen M. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. [3]

Schaffler K, Reeh PW. Double blind study of the hypoxia protective effect of a standardized Ginkgo biloba preparation after repeated administration in healthy subjects. [3] Engelsen J, Dalsgaard N, Winther K. The health care products Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba do not interact with warfarin. [3]

Ginkgo biloba is commonly used in the treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, peripheral claudication, and tinnitus of vascular origin. [3] Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings. [3] DeFeudis FV. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761): pharmacological activities and clinical applications. [3]

Van Beek T, Bombardelli E, Peterlongo G. Ginkgo biloba L. Fitoterapia 1998;69:195-244. [3] Rowin J, Lewis SL. Spontaneous bilateral subdural hematomas associated with chronic Ginkgo biloba ingestion. [3] Table 1 discusses the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and cost of ginkgo biloba. [3] Cohen AJ, Bartlik B. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. [3]


IN-DEPTH

Section Contents:

* Ginkgo biloba can grow to be a huge, bold-textured, urban-tolerant shade tree that is also one of the oldest trees still living on Earth, actually a deciduous gymnosperm by botanical classification.(More…)

* Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba Elsabagh et al. J Psychopharmacol 2005;19:173-181.(More…)

* Ginkgo biloba, a tree that has been cultivated in China for thousands of years, is widely heralded as a useful memory enhancer, and sells by the boatload.(More…)

* A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline.(More…)

* THURSDAY, Feb. 28 (HealthDay News) — Ginkgo biloba, the popular herbal supplement widely promoted as a memory enhancer, offered no clear-cut protection against memory loss in octogenarians, a new study shows.(More…)

* Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, Itil, KZ. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine.(More…)

* Where can special Ginkgo biloba trees be seen in the world with photos and details about them.(More…)

* Ginkgo Biloba is an herbal product.(More…)

* Ginkgolides A, B, C and J, together with bilobalide, are unique terpenoid components of the Ginkgo biloba tree.(More…)

* Preliminary study results indicate Ginkgo Biloba may also slow the onset of Alzheimer's disease.(More…)

* PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: Use of Ginkgo Biloba is not recommended if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.(More…)

* Each capsule contains 60 mg of Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract standardized to provide 24% Ginkgo Flavonglycosides and 6% Terpene Lactones.(More…)

* Contraindications: None known.(More…)

* The green picked leaves of cultivated trees are used to make ginkgo biloba extracts.(More…)

* P.L Le Bars et al. A Placebo- Controlled, Double blind, Randomized Trial of an extract of Ginkgo Biloba for Dementia.(More…)

* Ginkgo biloba is believed to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, protecting cell membranes and helping govern the workings of the brain's chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters.(More…)

* Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is an ancient Chinese tree whose leaves are used medicinally.(More…)

* Ginkgo is also known as Ginkgo biloba, maidenhair tree, kew tree, fossil tree, ginkyo, and yinhsing.(More…)

Ginkgo biloba can grow to be a huge, bold-textured, urban-tolerant shade tree that is also one of the oldest trees still living on Earth, actually a deciduous gymnosperm by botanical classification. [13] The average Ginkgo Biloba preparation is a 50:1 extract standardized to 24% of the ginkgo flavonone glycosides. It can be taken as a capsule, pill, or tincture. They should be consulted first if you have any of these conditions, as Ginkgo usage may be contraindicated: If you have a blood clotting disorder (Gingko has been reported to have anti-clotting ability). [14] The World wide sales of Ginkgo Biloba (extract taken from the leaves) was reported as reaching an estimated U.S. $500 million in 1991. [14] Ginkgo Biloba is our oldest species of tree. It is estimated to have lived some 200 million years ago. This is a very hardy, dioecious tree with light green fan shaped leaves. It can reach heights up to 125 feet and is extremely hardy. [14] In studies, Ginkgo Biloba has been reported as demonstrating anti-oxidant abilities with improvements of the platelet and nerve cell functions and blood flow to the nervous system and brain. It has also been reported as reducing blood viscosity. [14]


Limited cognitive benefits in Stage +2 postmenopausal women after 6 weeks of treatment with Ginkgo biloba Elsabagh et al. J Psychopharmacol 2005;19:173-181. [15] Ginkgo biloba is the only surviving member of the ginkgo family. While its relatives became extinct in other parts of the world Ginkgo biloba survived in China, where it became known to Europeans in the eighteenth century, and subsequently was introduced as a ornamental tree throughout the Western world. [5] According to Nature's Way, Ginkgold would go on to outsell all other ginkgo biloba supplements combined in the United States. [16]


Ginkgo biloba, a tree that has been cultivated in China for thousands of years, is widely heralded as a useful memory enhancer, and sells by the boatload. [17] Ginkgo biloba has shown promise in ameliorating some types of memory problems, but evidence to date is weak and primarily anecdotal. Its perceived value currently far outweighs its known or tested value, which I think is important for people to realize. [17]

Ginkgo Fails Important Memory Test, According To Study In JAMA Ginkgo Fails Important Memory Test, According To Study In JAMA (Aug. 21, 2002) - Ginkgo biloba has no beneficial effect on memory and related mental functions of healthy older adults when taken following manufacturer's instructions, according to a study in the Aug. 21st issue. [18]

ScienceDaily (Mar. 1, 2008) - Taking the supplement ginkgo biloba had no clear-cut benefit on the risk of developing memory problems, according to a new study. [18] The new reference materials are designed to help researchers. Ginseng, Ginko Biloba Do Not Interfere With Drug Absorption If Taken At Recommended Doses Ginseng, Ginko Biloba Do Not Interfere With Drug Absorption If Taken At Recommended Doses (May 4, 2007) - Daily use of ginseng or ginkgo biloba supplements at the recommended doses, or the combination of both supplements, are unlikely to alter the pharmacokinetics — by which drugs are absorbed,. [18] Determining The Quality Of Ginkgo Determining The Quality Of Ginkgo (Aug. 17, 2007) - NIST has issued a suite of Standard Reference Materials for ginkgo biloba, one of the most popular dietary supplements in the marketplace. [18]


A randomized placebo-controlled trial of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cognitive decline. [19] The herb is extracted from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba tree and was first used medicinally in China more than 5,000 years ago. [19] The remarkable effects of Ginkgo biloba on brain function and circulation have made this venerable tree one of the most extensively studied and widely used botanicals in the world. [20]


THURSDAY, Feb. 28 (HealthDay News) — Ginkgo biloba, the popular herbal supplement widely promoted as a memory enhancer, offered no clear-cut protection against memory loss in octogenarians, a new study shows. A small but disturbing pattern showed up in those who took the herb extract during the three-year study, the researchers added. [21] The UCLA study used positron-emission tomography (PET) and found that for people taking ginkgo biloba, improved recall correlated with better brain function in key brain memory centres. [22] The study examined the impact of ginkgo biloba, compared to a placebo, in 10 patients, aged 45 to 75, who did not have dementia but complained of mild age-related memory loss. Four subjects received 120 mg of ginkgo biloba twice daily, and six received a placebo or inactive substance such as a sugar pill. [22] September 1, 2006 Researchers found significant improvement in verbal recall among a group of people with age-associated memory impairment, who took the herbal supplement ginkgo biloba for six months, when compared with a group that received a placebo. [22]

The UCLA study and previous controlled clinical trials on ginkgo biloba's effects on verbal recall have yielded conflicting results. [22] Small also noted that the six-month UCLA study is one of the first to measure the effects of ginkgo biloba over a longer period of time. [22] "Our findings suggest intriguing avenues for future study, including using PET with a larger sample to better measure and understand the impact of ginkgo biloba on brain metabolism," said Dr. Linda Ercoli, lead author of the study and an assistant clinical professor at the UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute. [22] Ginkgo Biloba & The Brain Ginkgo biloba may help improve memory, and could even protect against Alzheimer's. [22] Researchers noted that although all volunteers taking ginkgo biloba experienced better verbal recall, a larger sample size might be needed to effectively track brain metabolism results. [22]


Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, Itil, KZ. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. [23] Quaranta L, Bettelli S, Uva MG, Semeraro F, Turano R, Gandolfo E. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on preexisting visual field damage in normal tension glaucoma. [23] Kudolo GB, Dorsey S, Blodgett J. Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and Type 2 diabetic subjects. [23] Kudolo GB, Wang W, Elrod R, Barrientos J, Haase A, Blodgett J. Short-term ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract does not alter whole body insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic or type 2 diabetic subjects—a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. [23] Welt K, Weiss J, Martin R, Hermsdorf T, Drews S, Fitzl G. Ginkgo biloba extract protects rat kidney from diabetic and hypoxic damage. [23] Sugiyama T, Kubota Y, Shinozuka K, Yamada S, Wu J, Umegaki K. Ginkgo biloba extract modifies hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide via hepatic cytochrome P450 mediated mechanism in aged rats. [23]

Cancer Letters. 2004;210(2):159-169. Tang J, Sun J, Zhang Y, Li L, Cui F, He Z. Herb-drug interactions: Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats. [23] Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Wu GY. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract added to haloperidol on peripheral T cell subsets in drug-free schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. [23] Rai GS, Shovlin C, Wesnes KA. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Ginkgo biloba extract ('tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory impairment. [23] The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study: design and baseline data of a randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract in prevention of dementia. [23] Galduroz JC, Antunes HK, Santos RF. Gender- and age-related variations in blood viscosity in normal volunteers: a study of the effects of extract of Allium sativum and Ginkgo biloba. [23] Markowitz JS, DeVane CL, Lewis JG, Chavin KD, Wang JS, Donovan JL. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on plasma steroid concentrations in healthy volunteers: a pilot study. [23] Uchida S, Yamada H, Li XD, et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolbutamide and midazolam in healthy volunteers. [23] Yasui-Furukori N, Furukori H, Kaneda A, Kaneko S, Tateishi T. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of donepezil. [23] Sakakibara H, Ishida K, Grundmann O, et al. Antidepressant effect of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in behavioral models. [23] Canter PH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba is not a smart drug: an updated systematic review of randomised sic clinical trials testing the nootropic effects of G. biloba extracts in healthy people. [23] Atmaca M, Tezcan E, Kuloglu M, Ustundag B, Kirtas O. The effect of extract of ginkgo biloba addition to olanzapine on therapeutic effect and antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with schizophrenia. [23] Wu Y, Li S, Cui W, Zu X, Wang F, Du J. Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in patients with coronary artery disease: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. [23] Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein J. Neuroprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract. [23] Paick JS, Lee JH. An experimental study of the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue. [23] Kuribara H, Weintraub ST, Yoshihama T, Maruyama Y. An anxiolytic-like effect of Ginkgo biloba extract and its constituent, ginkgolide-A, in mice. [23] I. Effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in rats. [23] Chao JC, Hung HC, Chen SH, Fang CL. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cytoprotective factors in rats with duodenal ulcer. [23] Zhang M, Cai J. Extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves reverses yohimbine-induced spatial working memory deficit in rats. [23] Rajaraman G, Chen J, Chang TK. Ginkgolide A contributes to the potentiation of acetaminophen toxicity by Ginkgo biloba extract in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. [23] Akiba S, Chiba M, Mukaida Y, Tamura A, Sato T. The leaf extract of Ginkgo Biloba L. suppresses oxidized LDL-stimulated fibronectin production through an antioxidant action in rat mesangial cells. [23] Gaudineau C, Beckerman R, Welbourn S, Auclair K. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by multiple constituents of the Ginkgo biloba extract. [23] Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, Horr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract (EGb 761) in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. [23] Kanowski S, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia: intent-to-treat analyses of a 24-week, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. [23] Woelk H, Arnoldt KH, Kieser M, Hoerr R. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761((R)) in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. [23] Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. [23] Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: findings from a randomised sic controlled trial. [23]

Kohler S, Funk P, Kieser M. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. [23] Horsch S, Walther C. Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD)—a review based on randomized, controlled studies. [23] Bastianetto S, Ramassamy C, Dore S, et al. The ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects hippocampal neurons against cell death induced by beta-amyloid. [23] Hirooka K, Tokuda M, Miyamoto O, Itano T, Baba T, Shiraga F. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) provides a neuroprotective effect on retinal ganglion cells in a rat model of chronic glaucoma. [23] Kubota Y, Kobayashi K, Tanaka N, et al. Interaction of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) with hypotensive agent, nicardipine, in rats. [23] Kubota Y, Kobayashi K, Tanaka N, et al. Pretreatment with Ginkgo biloba extract weakens the hypnosis action of phenobarbital and its plasma concentration in rats. [23]

Yao P, Song F, Li K, et al. Ginkgo biloba Extract Prevents Ethanol Induced Dyslipidemia. [23] Yao P, Li K, Song F, et al. Heme oxygenase-1 upregulated by Ginkgo biloba extract: potential protection against ethanol-induced oxidative liver damage. [23]

Lovera J, Bagert B, Smoot K, et al. Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. [23] Peters H, Kieser M, Holscher U. Demonstration of the efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on intermittent claudication - a placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial. [23] Kang BJ, Lee SJ, Kim MD, Cho MJ. A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. [23] Wheatley D. Triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba in sexual dysfunction due to antidepressant drugs. [23]

Kudolo GB. The effect of 3-month ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on pancreatic beta-cell function in response to glucose loading in normal glucose tolerant individuals. [23] Hopfenmuller W. Evidence for a therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba special extract. [23] Chan PC, Xia Q, Fu PP. Ginkgo biloba leavesic extract: biological, medicinal, and toxicological effects. [23] Satoh H, Nishida S. Electropharmacological actions of Ginkgo biloba extract on vascular smooth and heart muscles. [23] Ritch R. Potential role for Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of glaucoma. Medical Hypotheses. 2000;54(2):221-235. [23] Chung HS, Harris A, Kristinsson JK, Ciulla TA, Kagemann C, Ritch R. Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. [23]

Luo YJ, Yu JP, Shi ZH, Wang L. Ginkgo biloba extract reverses CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. [23] Persson J, Bringlov E, Nilsson LG, Nyberg L. The memory-enhancing effects of Ginseng and Ginkgo biloba in healthy volunteers. [23] Cieza A, Maier P, Poppel E. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on mental functioning in healthy volunteers. [23]

Burns NR, Bryan J, Nettelbeck T. Ginkgo biloba: no robust effect on cognitive abilities or mood in healthy young or older adults. [23] Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. The dose-dependent cognitive effects of acute administration of Ginkgo biloba to healthy young volunteers. [23] Mattes RD, Pawlik MK. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on alertness and chemosensory function in healthy adults. [23] Rai D, Bhatia G, Sen T, Palit G. Anti-stress effects of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng: a comparative study. [23] Abdel-Salam OM, Baiuomy AR, El-batran S, Arbid MS. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and gastric effects of Ginkgo biloba in the rat. [23] Lu Q, Yin XX, Wang JY, Gao YY, Pan YM. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on prevention of development of experimental diabetic nephropathy in rats. [23]

August 21, 2007. DeFeudis FV, Papadopoulos V, Drieu K. Ginkgo biloba extracts and cancer: a research area in its infancy. [23] Mix JA, Crews WD Jr. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. [23] Kalkunte SS, Singh AP, Chaves FC, et al. Antidepressant and antistress activity of GC-MS characterized lipophilic extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. [23] Chen JW, Chen YH, Lin FY, Chen YL, Lin SJ. Ginkgo biloba extract inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced reactive oxygen species generation, transcription factor activation, and cell adhesion molecule expression in human aortic endothelial cells. [23] Smith PF, Zheng Y, Darlington CL. Ginkgo biloba extracts for tinnitus: More hype than hope? Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;100(1-2):95-99. [23] Colciaghi F, Borroni B, Zimmermann M, et al. Amyloid precursor protein metabolism is regulated toward alpha-secretase pathway by Ginkgo biloba extracts. [23]

Siegel G, Schafer P, Winkler K, Malmsten M. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in arteriosclerosis prophylaxis. [23] Rodriguez M, Ringstad L, Schafer P, et al. Reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation and size by Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in cardiovascular high-risk patients. [23] Roncin JP, Schwartz F, D'Arbigny P. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in control of acute mountain sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure. [23]

Gertsch JH, Basnyat B, Johnson EW, Onopa J, Holck PS. Randomised sic, double blind, placebo controlled comparison of ginkgo biloba and acetazolamide for prevention of acute mountain sickness among Himalayan trekkers: the prevention of high altitude illness trial (PHAIT). [23] Birks J, Grimley Evans J. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. [23] Zhao LZ, Huang M, Chen J, et al. Induction of propranolol metabolism by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in rats. [23] Wolf HR. Does Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 provide additional effects on coagulation and bleeding when added to acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg daily? Drugs Research and Development. 2006;7(3):163-172. [23] Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Clinical assessment of effects of botanical supplementation on cytochrome P450 phenotypes in the elderly: St John's wort, garlic oil, Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba. [23] McKenna DJ, Jones K, Hughes K. Efficacy, safety, and use of ginkgo biloba in clinical and preclinical applications. [23] Wimpissinger B, Berisha F, Garhoefer G, Polak K, Schmetterer L. Influence of Ginkgo biloba on ocular blood flow. [23]

Rejali D, Sivakumar A, Balaji N. Ginkgo biloba does not benefit patients with tinnitus: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial and meta-analysis of randomized trials. [23] Harms SL, Garrard J, Schwinghammer P, Eberly LE, Chang Y, Leppik IE. Ginkgo biloba use in nursing home elderly with epilepsy or seizure disorder. [23] Shah ZA, Sharma P, Vohora SB. Ginkgo biloba normalises sic stress-elevated alterations in brain catecholamines, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels. [23]

Al-Yahya AA, Al-Majed AA, Al-Bekairi AM, Al-Shabanah OA, Qureshi S. Studies on the reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Ginkgo Biloba in Swiss albino mice. [23] Bent S, Goldberg H, Padula A, Avins AL. Spontaneous bleeding associated with ginkgo biloba: a case report and systematic review of the literature: a case report and systematic review of the literature. [23] Kressmann S, Muller WE, Blume HH. Pharmaceutical quality of different Ginkgo biloba brands. [23]

Menopause. 2007;14(3 Pt 1):541-549. Gardner CD, Messina M, Lawson LD, Farquhar JW. Soy, garlic, and ginkgo biloba: their potential role in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. [23] Hoffman JR, Donato A, Robbins SJ. Ginkgo biloba promotes short-term retention of spatial memory in rats. [23] Pinto RM, Fernandes ES, Reis JE, Peters VM, Guerra Mde O. Intra-uterine growth retardation after prenatal administration of Ginkgo biloba to rats. [23]

Gertsch JH, Seto TB, Mor J, Onopa J. Ginkgo biloba for the prevention of severe acute mountain sickness (AMS) starting one day before rapid ascent. [23] Aruna D, Naidu MU. Pharmacodynamic interaction studies of Ginkgo biloba with cilostazol and clopidogrel in healthy human subjects. [23] Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, Lindsay DeVane C, Sipkes L, Chavin KD. Multiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers. [23] Balon R. Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction? Journal of Sexual and Marital Therapy. 1999;25(1):1-2. [23] Bressler R. Herb-drug interactions: interactions between Ginkgo biloba and prescription medications. [23]

Zeng X, Liu M, Yang Y, Li Y, Asplund K. Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic sic stroke. [23]


Where can special Ginkgo biloba trees be seen in the world with photos and details about them. [24] THE GINKGO PAGES. are about the tree Ginkgo biloba and all its aspects. I created this site because of my fascination and respect for this unique tree, a living fossil, unchanged since the time of the dinosaurs. It is the sole living link between the lower and higher plants, a symbol of longevity and is seen as one of the wonders of this world. [24]


Ginkgo Biloba is an herbal product. It works by increasing blood flow to the brain. Contact your doctor or health care provider right away if any of these apply to you. [1] Using Ginkgo Biloba alone, with certain other medicines, or with alcohol may lessen your ability to drive or to perform other potentially dangerous tasks. If you are using this product for brain conditions, consult your doctor or pharmacist. [1] If you miss taking a dose of Ginkgo Biloba for 1 or more days, there is no cause for concern. [1] Do not share it with other people. If your symptoms do not improve or if they become worse, check with your doctor. This information is a summary only. It does not contain all information about Ginkgo Biloba. [1]


Ginkgolides A, B, C and J, together with bilobalide, are unique terpenoid components of the Ginkgo biloba tree. [25] Ginkgo biloba has a wide range of effects, including inhibition of platelet activating factor, increased cerebral circulation and antioxidant protection. [25] Note : Ginkgo biloba should not be taken by pregnant or lactating mothers. Persons taking anticagulant (blood thinning) therapy should consult their physicians before use of ginkgo. Ginkgo is also not recommended for those with a history of epilepsy. Ginkgo contains many different substances but most of them fall into two main categories: Terpenoid lactones and Flavonoids. [25] Usage: As a dietary supplement, take half or 1 ginkgo biloba capsule a day or a few times a week in the morning or as directed by your qualified health consultant. [25]


Preliminary study results indicate Ginkgo Biloba may also slow the onset of Alzheimer's disease. [26] Ginkgo Biloba lowers blood pressure, inhibits blood clotting, relieves muscle pain and has anti-aging properties. [26]


PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: Use of Ginkgo Biloba is not recommended if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. If you plan on becoming pregnant, discuss with your doctor the risks of using this product during pregnancy. [1] Purpose: This site provides Ginkgo Biloba research, Internet pricing, and a directory of the many web sites where Ginkgo Biloba is available. [26] The Ginkgo biloba is the sole remaining species within the Division Ginkgophyta. [6] The number of subjects was small, according to Dr. David Knopman of the Mayo Clinic's neurology department, who reviewed the research before publication. The scientists also reported that the results differed when they looked at only the subjects who were most faithfully taking either the extract or a placebo. Those who took the ginkgo biloba supplements without skipping doses fared better on memory tests than did those who took the placebo without skipping doses. [27] The review of trials assessed the effectiveness of extract of Ginkgo biloba. [28] Several trials of Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus in patients with cerebral insufficiency were identified but none reached a satisfactory standard for inclusion in the review. [28] To assess the effect of Ginkgo biloba in patients who are troubled by tinnitus. [28]

Few good quality trials were found and there was no evidence that Ginkgo biloba is effective for tinnitus. [28] Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. The full text of the review is available in The Cochrane Library The Cochrane Library (ISSN 1464-780X). This record should be cited as: Hilton M, Stuart E. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus. [28] There was no reliable evidence to address the question of whether Ginkgo biloba is effective for tinnitus associated with cerebral insufficiency. [28]


Each capsule contains 60 mg of Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract standardized to provide 24% Ginkgo Flavonglycosides and 6% Terpene Lactones. [29] Zhang J, Fu S, Liu S, et al. The therapeutic effect of ginkgo biloba extract in SHR rats and its possible mechanisms based on cerebral microvascular flow and vasomotion. [30] Sun BL, Xia ZL, Yang MF, Qiu PM. Effects of ginkgo biloba extract on somatosensory evoked potential, nitric oxide levels in serum and brain tissue in rats with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. [30] Seif-El-Nasr M, El-Fattah AA. Lipid peroxide, phospholipids, glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity in rat brain after ischaemia: effect of ginkgo biloba extract. [30] Calapai G, Crupi A, Firenzuoli F, et al. Neuroprotective effects of ginkgo biloba extract in brain ischemia are mediated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. [30] Dutta-Roy AK, Gordon MJ, Kelly C, et al. Inhibitory effect of ginkgo biloba extract on human platelet aggregation. [30] Dumont E, Petit E, Tarrade T, Nouvelot A. UV-C irradiation-induced peroxidative degradation of microsomal fatty acids and proteins: protection by an extract of ginkgo biloba (EGb 761). [30] The phytomedicinal use of ginkgo was described as early as 2600 BC in the Chen Noung Pen T'sao pharmacopoeia. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been developed as the proprietary extract, EGb 761, by the W. Schwabe Co. of Karlsruhe, Germany. [30]

Ranchon I, Gorrand JM, Cluzel J, et al. Functional protection of photoreceptors from light-induced damage by dimethylthiourea and ginkgo biloba extract. [30] Pritz-Hohmeier S, Chao TI, Krenzlin J, Reichenbach A. Effect of in vivo application of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 (Rokan) on the susceptibility of mammalian retinal cells to proteolytic enzymes. [30] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001;98:6577-80. Bastianetto S, Zheng WH, Quirion R. The ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects and rescues hippocampal cells against nitric oxide-induced toxicity: involvement of its flavonoid constituents and protein kinase C. J Neurochem 2000;74:2268-77. [30] Kose K, Dogan P. Lipoperoxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocyte membranes. 2. Comparison of the antioxidant effect of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) with those of water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants. [30] Liebgott T, Miollan M, Berchadsky Y, et al. Complementary cardioprotective effects of flavonoid metabolites and terpenoid constituents of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) during ischemia and reperfusion. [30] Dumont E, D'Arbigny P, Nouvelot A. Protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids against iron-dependent lipid peroxidation by a ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761). [30] Watanabe CM, Wolffram S, Ader P, et al. The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo biloba. [30] Pierre S, Jamme I, Droy-Lefaix MT, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects Na,K-ATPase activity during cerebral ischemia in mice. [30]

Li Z, Nakaya Y, Niwa Y, Chen X. K(Ca) channel-opening activity of ginkgo biloba extracts and ginsenosides in cultured endothelial cells. [30] Lamant V, Mauco G, Braquet P, et al. Inhibition of the metabolism of platelet activating factor (PAF-acether) by three specific antagonists from ginkgo biloba. [30]

The MEDLINE and EMBASE searches did not identify additional randomized clinical trials for ginkgo biloba and any other ocular condition after the date of the Cochrane systematic review. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE for additional articles other than this single published trial was undertaken using the same keywords. [30] The mainstay of current glaucoma therapy is to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) with drugs, laser surgery, and filtration surgery. New approaches for glaucoma treatment are theoretical and speculative; they are based on enhancing ocular blood flow, neuroprotection, and potentially using ginkgo biloba. [30] Smith PF, Maclennan K, Darlington CL. The neuroprotective properties of the ginkgo biloba leaf: a review of the possible relationship to platelet-activating factor (PAF). [30]

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Taking the herbal supplement ginkgo biloba may help delay the onset of cognitive impairment in normal elderly adults, according to a study published online Wednesday. [7] Extracts of ginkgo biloba are among the most widely used dietary supplements. [7] Experts are awaiting the results of a much larger, multi-center trial based at the University of Pittsburgh. That trial compared the effects of the herb with a placebo in 3,000 people to see if ginkgo biloba helped prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. [31]

Half were assigned to take 240 milligrams of ginkgo biloba extract daily; half got a placebo. [31]

THURSDAY, Feb. 28 (HealthDay News) — Ginkgo biloba, the popular herbal supplement widely promoted as a memory enhancer, offered no clear-cut protection against memory loss in octogenarians, a new study shows. [31]


Contraindications: None known. Side effects: Slightly higher rates of GI irritation, allergic skin reaction, and headache, in comparison to placebo groups. Evidence pro its efficacy: A recent American, multi-center, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial demonstrated modest improvements in patients treated with Ginkgo biloba extract relative to patients given placebo only. Evidence con its efficacy: The improvements ascribed to Ginkgo extract were fairly modest. [32] Itil TM, Eralp E, Ahmed I, Kunitz A, Itil KZ. The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine. [32]

Randomized double-blind study of the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract. [32] Simanyi M. Use of special Ginkgo biloba extract for cognitive disorders in the elderly. [32]

Kanowski S. Herrmann WM. Stephan K. Wierich W. Horr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. [32] Maurer K. Ihl R. Dierks T. Frolich L. Clinical efficacy of ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in dementia of the Alzheimer type. [32]

Stoll S, Scheuer K, Pohl O, Muller WE. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) independently improves changes in passive avoidance learning and brain membrane fluidity in the aging mouse. [32] Letzel H, Schoop W. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and pentoxifylline in intermittent claudication. [32] Mizuno M, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 is a suppresser of AP-1 transcription factor stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. [32] Although Ginkgo biloba is the only extant species of ginkgos today, many ginkgo relatives have been found in the fossil record. [2]

What plant may cure Alzheimer's disease, increase circulation, tastes like almonds and smells like rancid butter? This plant is none other than Ginkgo biloba. [2] Ginkgo biloba is a highly adaptable plant that can grow in almost any temperate or Mediterranean climate. It is also resistant to pollution and pests. These attributes have made the male ginkgos very popular in cities. [2]


The green picked leaves of cultivated trees are used to make ginkgo biloba extracts. [4] When buying ginkgo biloba, it is worth remembering that all of the clinical studies have used an extract standardized to 24-percent flavone glycosides and 6-percent terpene lactones. [4] In other studies, ginkgo biloba extract has been shown to be of some benefit in peripheral arterial disease. [4] Ginkgo biloba extract has also been used to improve circulation and cardiovascular health. [4] Ginkgo biloba extracts are standardized based on the amount of flavone glycosides and terpene lactones present. [4]

Because ginkgo biloba has been shown to alter platelet-activating factor and platelet function, people taking warfarin and other blood thinners should avoid ginkgo. [4] Ginkgo biloba appears to be relatively safe, although some people have mild gastrointestinal discomfort. [4]

In the United States, ginkgo biloba is most commonly used as an aid for mental acuity and memory and as an antioxidant (a substance that protects the body's cells from damage). [4] Ginkgo biloba has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 4,000 years. [4]

A study published in 2003 examined the antioxidant properties of a number of different commercially available ginkgo biloba products. [4] Ginkgo biloba is one of many herbal supplements that has captured the hearts of Americans and has become one of our favorites. [4]


P.L Le Bars et al. A Placebo- Controlled, Double blind, Randomized Trial of an extract of Ginkgo Biloba for Dementia. [33] Ginkgo Biloba is regarded as one of the most ancient tree species on earth, belonging in a family of plants, the story of which, is lost in the depths of prehistory. It is the only alive representative of the ginogoaceae family, of the class Ginkgoales. The plant is coniferous and deciduous, indigenous to both China and Japan. [33] A research with placebo showed that the Ginkgo biloba team had supremacy with statistic important difference in increasing the walking distance without pain. [33]


Ginkgo biloba is believed to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, protecting cell membranes and helping govern the workings of the brain's chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters. [31] Context: Two Himalayan studies found Ginkgo Biloba prevented Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) during gradual ascent. [34] Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. [35] Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. [35] Lanthony P, Cosson JP. Evolution of color vision in diabetic retinopathy treated by extract of Ginkgo biloba. [35] Mix JA, Crews WD. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. [35] Clostre F. From the body to the cell membranes: the different levels of pharmacological action of Ginkgo biloba extract. [35]

Jung F, Mrowietz C, Kiesewetter H, Wenzel E. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on fluidity of blood and peripheral microcirculation in volunteers. [35] Ferrandini C, Droy-Lefaix MT, Christen Y, eds. Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) as a Free Radical Scavenger. [35]


Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba is an ancient Chinese tree whose leaves are used medicinally. [36] A: Ginkgo biloba, from the leaves of the ginkgo tree, is full of antioxidants and flavonoids. Studies suggest that this herb, first used in China, is capable of improving cognitive function, resulting in increased mental sharpness, better concentration and improved memory. [37] Weil Ginkgo biloba is available in the ideal standardized ratio of 24% ginkgoflavonglycosides and 6% terpene lactones. - Andrew Weil, M.D. Andrew Weil, M.D, donates all his after-tax profits from the sale of Weil Nutritional Supplements to the Weil Foundation, an organization dedicated to sustaining the vision of integrative medicine. [37]


Ginkgo is also known as Ginkgo biloba, maidenhair tree, kew tree, fossil tree, ginkyo, and yinhsing. [38]


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2. Introduction to the Ginkgoales
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3. Gingko Bilboa - September 1, 2003 - American Family Physician
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4. InteliHealth:
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5. Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo biloba photos, Ginkgo photos, Ginkgo leaf photos, by Steven Foster
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6. Ginkgo biloba Page
http://www.texarkanacollege.edu/~mstorey/plants/Ginkgo.html

7. Reuters Health | Ginkgo biloba may protect memory
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8. Ginkgo biloba
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10. Ginkgo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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11. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) - MayoClinic.com
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12. Ginkgo Biloba Information - Ginkgo Biloba Side Effects and Benefits
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13. Ginkgo biloba
http://hcs.osu.edu/pocketgardener/sourcetext/description/gi_iloba.html

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15. JAMA — Abstract: Ginkgo for Memory Enhancement: A Randomized Controlled Trial, August 21, 2002, Solomon et al. 288 (7): 835
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16. How did ginkgo biloba become the top-selling brain enhancer? - By Brendan I. Koerner - Slate Magazine
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17. Lumosity Brain Health » Ginkgo biloba myth
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20. HRF Greenpapers: Ginkgo
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21. Ginkgo Biloba Might Not Preserve Memory in Octogenarians - washingtonpost.com
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22. Brain Research Institute
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23. Ginkgo Biloba - Drugs & Vitamins - Drug Library - DrugDigest
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24. GINKGO BILOBA -The Ginkgo Pages -Index
http://www.xs4all.nl/~kwanten/

25. Ginkgo-60mg
http://www.physicianformulas.com/store/Scripts/prodview.asp?idproduct=263&name=Ginkgo-60mg

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27. Can Ginkgo Stop Memory Loss? | Newsweek Fact or Fiction | Newsweek.com
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30. Ginkgo Biloba and Ocular Conditions
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